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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081069

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Skin Alters the Faecal Microbiome Independently of Vitamin D in Mice

1
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6008, Australia
2
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
3
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
4
School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia
5
Australian Genome Research Facility, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
6
Department of Anatomical Pathology, PathWest, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
7
Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, St. John of God Hospital, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract

Reduced sunlight exposure has been associated with an increased incidence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the faecal microbiome and susceptibility to colitis has not been explored. C57Bl/6 female mice were fed three different vitamin D-containing diets for 24 days before half of the mice in each group were UV-irradiated (1 kJ/m2) for each of four days, followed by twice-weekly irradiation of shaved dorsal skin for 35 days. Faecal DNA was extracted and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S RNA gene performed. UV irradiation of skin was associated with a significant change in the beta-diversity of faeces compared to nonirradiated mice, independently of vitamin D. Specifically, members of phylum Firmicutes, including Coprococcus, were enriched, whereas members of phylum Bacteroidetes, such as Bacteroidales, were depleted. Expression of colonic CYP27B1 increased by four-fold and IL1β decreased by five-fold, suggesting a UVR-induced anti-inflammatory effect. UV-irradiated mice, however, were not protected against colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), although distinct faecal microbiome differences were documented post-DSS between UV-irradiated and nonirradiated mice. Thus, skin exposure to UVR alters the faecal microbiome, and further investigations to explore the implications of this in health and disease are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; microbiome; vitamin D; inflammatory bowel disease ultraviolet radiation; microbiome; vitamin D; inflammatory bowel disease
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Ghaly, S.; Kaakoush, N.O.; Lloyd, F.; Gordon, L.; Forest, C.; Lawrance, I.C.; Hart, P.H. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Skin Alters the Faecal Microbiome Independently of Vitamin D in Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1069.

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