Anti-Cancer Natural Products and Their Bioactive Compounds Inducing ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis: A Review
Department of Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081021
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
Cancer is the second biggest cause of death worldwide. Despite a number of studies being conducted, the effective mechanism for treating cancer has not yet been fully understood. The tumor-microenvironment such as hypoxia, low nutrients could disturb function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to maintain cellular homeostasis, ultimately leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in ER, so-called ER stress. The ER stress has a close relation with cancer. ER stress initiates unfolded protein response (UPR) to re-establish ER homeostasis as an adaptive pathway in cancer. However, persistent ER stress triggers the apoptotic pathway. Therefore, blocking the adaptive pathway of ER stress or facilitating the apoptotic pathway could be an anti-cancer strategy. Recently, natural products and their derivatives have been reported to have anti-cancer effects via ER stress. Here, we address mechanisms of ER stress-mediated apoptosis and highlight strategies for cancer therapy by utilizing ER stress. Furthermore, we summarize anti-cancer activity of the natural products via ER stress in six major types of cancers globally (lung, breast, colorectal, gastric, prostate and liver cancer). This review deepens the understanding of ER stress mechanisms in major cancers as well as the suppressive impact of natural products against cancers via ER stress.