Sedentary behavior, a low physical activity level, and unhealthy dietary patterns are risk factors for major chronic diseases, including obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of dietary patterns (DPs) with sedentary behaviors (SB) and self-reported physical activity (PA). The data was collected in November 2016 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey amongst 1007 Polish adults. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to derive DPs. Logistic regression analysis was used to verify associations between PA and SD (independent variables), and DPs (dependent variables). Five DPs (‘Fast foods & sweets’—FF&S; ‘Meat & meat products’—M&MP; ‘Fruit & vegetable’—F&V; ‘Wholemeal food’—WF; ‘Fruit & vegetable juices’—F&VJ) were identified. Representing M&MP independently increased the chance of watching TV at least once a day (by 73%). There was no such relationship between the FF&S and sedentary behaviors. Being in the upper tertiles of pro-health DPs increased the chance of reading books (by 177%—F&V, 149%—WF, 54%—F&VJ) and watching TV (by 71%—F&V). On the other hand, belonging to the upper tertile of WF reduced the chance of using the computer for more than 4 h a day. Belonging to the upper tertile of healthy DPs (WF and F&VJ) increased the chances of moderate or high physical activity, both at work/school and during leisure time. Within F&V, there was a lower chance of moderate or high physical activity at work/school. Being in the upper tertile of unhealthy DPs (FF&S and M&MP) did not show any significant association with physical activity. The study indicated the associations between both healthy and unhealthy DPs and some sedentary behaviors. Association between F&V and watching TV and reading books/newspapers should be recognized as potentially efficient in education. Association between M&MP and watching television can be indicative of the mutual overlap of a negative lifestyle resulting in the development of overweight and obesity, especially since the extent of occurrence of sedentary behaviors is high.
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