Next Article in Journal
Nutritional Interventions as Beneficial Strategies to Delay Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Individuals
Next Article in Special Issue
Zinc and Sepsis
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Proteins in BALB/c Mice: Comparison of Three Protocols of Intraperitoneal Sensitization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids
Open AccessReview

Immunomodulatory Protein Hydrolysates and Their Application

Immunoendocrinology, Division of Medical Biology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070904
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
Immunomodulatory protein hydrolysate consumption may delay or prevent western immune-related diseases. In order to purposively develop protein hydrolysates with an optimal and reproducible immunomodulatory effect, knowledge is needed on which components in protein hydrolysates are responsible for the immune effects. Important advances have been made on this aspect. Also, knowledge on mechanisms underlying the immune modulating effects is indispensable. In this review, we discuss the most promising application possibilities for immunomodulatory protein hydrolysates. In order to do so, an overview is provided on reported in vivo immune effects of protein hydrolysates in both local intestinal and systemic organs, and the current insights in the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Furthermore, we discuss current knowledge and physicochemical approaches to identify the immune active protein sequence(s). We conclude that multiple hydrolysate compositions show specific immune effects. This knowledge can improve the efficacy of existing hydrolysate-containing products such as sports nutrition, clinical nutrition, and infant formula. We also provide arguments for why immunomodulatory protein hydrolysates could be applied to manage the immune response in the increasing number of individuals with a higher risk of immune dysfunction due to, for example, increasing age or stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein hydrolysate; bioactive peptide; immunomodulation; Toll-like receptor; functional foods protein hydrolysate; bioactive peptide; immunomodulation; Toll-like receptor; functional foods
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kiewiet, M.B.G.; Faas, M.M.; De Vos, P. Immunomodulatory Protein Hydrolysates and Their Application. Nutrients 2018, 10, 904.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop