New Insights about How to Make an Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet, Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. A Systematic Review of RCT
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Agrochemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Members of the Research Group of Applied Biochemistry (AppBiochem), Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Atacama, Avda Copayapu 2862, III Region, Copiapo 1530000, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070878
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Human)
Objective: To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients ≤19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). Method: search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). The selection criteria were: diagnostic for MS or at least a criterion for diagnosis; randomized clinical trials, ≤19 years of age; intervention programs that use diet and/or exercise as a tool (interventions showing an interest in body composition). Results: 1781 clinical trials were identified under these criteria but only 0.51% were included. The most frequent characteristics of the selected clinical trials were that they used multidisciplinary interventions and were carried out in America. The most utilized parameters were BMI (body mass index) in kg/m2 and BW (body weight) in kg. Conclusions: Most of the clinical trials included had been diagnosed through at least 2 diagnostic criteria for MS. Multidisciplinary interventions obtained greater changes in body composition in patients with MS. This change was especially prevalent in the combinations of dietary interventions and physical exercise. It is proposed to follow the guidelines proposed for patients who are overweight, obese, or have diabetes type 2, and extrapolate these strategies as recommendations for future clinical trials designed for patients with MS.