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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060751

A Novel Biomimetic Tool for Assessing Vitamin K Status Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

1
Maastricht Science Programme, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Maastricht University P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
3
Soft-Matter Physics and Biophysics Section, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
4
Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Universiteitssingel 50, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Vitamin K was originally discovered as a cofactor required to activate clotting factors and has recently been shown to play a key role in the regulation of soft tissue calcification. This property of vitamin K has led to an increased interest in novel methods for accurate vitamin K detection. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) could offer a solution, as they have been used as synthetic receptors in a large variety of biomimetic sensors for the detection of similar molecules over the past few decades, because of their robust nature and remarkable selectivity. In this article, the authors introduce a novel imprinting approach to create a MIP that is able to selectively rebind vitamin K1. As the native structure of the vitamin does not allow for imprinting, an alternative imprinting strategy was developed, using the synthetic compound menadione (vitamin K3) as a template. Target rebinding was analyzed by means of UV-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and two custom-made thermal readout techniques. This analysis reveals that the MIP-based sensor reacts to an increasing concentration of both menadione and vitamin K1. The Limit of Detection (LoD) for both compounds was established at 700 nM for the Heat Transfer Method (HTM), while the optimized readout approach, Thermal Wave Transport Analysis (TWTA), displayed an increased sensitivity with a LoD of 200 nM. The sensor seems to react to a lesser extent to Vitamin E, the analogue under study. To further demonstrate its potential application in biochemical research, the sensor was used to measure the absorption of vitamin K in blood serum after taking vitamin K supplements. By employing a gradual enrichment strategy, the sensor was able to detect the difference between baseline and peak absorption samples and was able to quantify the vitamin K concentration in good agreement with a validation experiment using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In this way, the authors provide a first proof of principle for a low-cost, straightforward, and label-free vitamin K sensor. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal biosensor; vitamin K; synthetic receptors; HPLC validation thermal biosensor; vitamin K; synthetic receptors; HPLC validation
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Eersels, K.; Diliën, H.; Lowdon, J.W.; Steen Redeker, E.; Rogosic, R.; Heidt, B.; Peeters, M.; Cornelis, P.; Lux, P.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.; Schurgers, L.J.; Cleij, T.J.; van Grinsven, B. A Novel Biomimetic Tool for Assessing Vitamin K Status Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. Nutrients 2018, 10, 751.

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