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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060719

Egg Consumption in Infants is Associated with Longer Recumbent Length and Greater Intake of Several Nutrients Essential in Growth and Development

1
Nutritional Strategies, 59 Marriott Place, Paris, ON N3L 0A3, Canada
2
Nutrition Impact, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Intake and Human Health)
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Abstract

Nutrient intake during infancy is critical for healthy growth and development. The present study examined egg consumption and associations with nutrient intakes, markers of growth and weight-related measures in infants 6–24 months of age (N = 561) compared to infant egg non-consumers (N = 2129). Egg consumers were defined as those infants consuming eggs (i.e., with the exclusion of mixed dishes) during a 24-h dietary recall. Associations with nutrient intakes and markers of growth variables were evaluated using data from What We Eat in America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2012. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate survey parameters and sample weights. Egg consumption was associated with greater energy intake compared to infants not consuming eggs (1265 ± 27 vs. 1190 ± 14 kcal/day; p = 0.01). Infant consumers of eggs also had greater protein (48 ± 0.7 vs. 41 ± 0.4 g/day), total choline (281 ± 6 vs. 163 ± 2 mg/day), lutein + zeaxanthin (788 ± 64 vs. 533 ± 23 mcg/day), α-linolenic acid (0.87 ± 0.02 vs. 0.82 ± 0.01 g/day), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0.04 ± 0.02 vs. 0.02 ± 0.001 g/day), vitamin B12 (4.2 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.1 mcg/day), phosphorus (977 ± 15 vs. 903 ± 8 mg/day), and selenium (67 ± 1 vs. 52 ± 0.6 mcg/day; all p-values < 0.05). Egg consumers also had greater consumption of total fat (50 ± 0.7 vs. 45 ± 0.3 g/day), monounsaturated fat (17 ± 0.3 vs. 15 ± 0.1 g/day), saturated fat (20 ± 0.4 vs. 18 ± 0.2 g/day), and sodium (1663 ± 36 vs. 1418 ± 19 mg/day), with lower added sugar (4.7 ± 0.3 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 tsp eq/day), and total sugar (87 ± 2 vs. 99 ± 1 g/day; all p-values < 0.05) vs. non-consumers of eggs. Egg consumption was also associated with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, magnesium and niacin relative to non-consumers of eggs. Egg consumption in infants was associated with longer recumbent length when compared to non-consumers of eggs (79.2 ± 0.2 vs. 78.7 ± 0.1 cm; p = 0.03). No associations were observed when comparing body weight. When compared to non-consumers of eggs and regardless of food security, poverty-income-ratio and Women, Infants and Children (WIC) supplemental nutrition status, egg consumption was associated with greater lutein + zeaxanthin intake per day. The current analyzes show that consumption of eggs in infant 6–24 months of age is linked with several nutrient intakes, including higher protein, lutein + zeaxanthin, choline, B12, selenium and phosphorus; and lower added and total sugars relative to non-consumers. Egg consumers also have less of several nutrients to be encouraged and a higher intake of nutrients to limit, thus presenting opportunities for educational strategies to potentially increase consumption of nutrient-dense foods in combination with eggs. View Full-Text
Keywords: NHANES; infants; nutrients; eggs; growth NHANES; infants; nutrients; eggs; growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Papanikolaou, Y.; Fulgoni, V.L., III. Egg Consumption in Infants is Associated with Longer Recumbent Length and Greater Intake of Several Nutrients Essential in Growth and Development. Nutrients 2018, 10, 719.

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