Associations of Diet and Physical Activity with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractRising rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and related complications have prompted calls to identify potentially modifiable risk factors that are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We systematically reviewed the scientific literature for observational studies examining specific dietary and/or physical activity (PA) factors and risk of GDM. Our search included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL/EBSCO, Science Direct and EMBASE, and identified 1167 articles, of which 40 met our inclusion criteria (e.g., singleton pregnancy, reported diet or PA data during pre-pregnancy/early pregnancy and GDM as an outcome measure). Studies were assessed for quality using a modified Quality Criteria Checklist from American Dietetic Association. Of the final 40 studies, 72% obtained a positive quality rating and 28% were rated neutral. The final analysis incorporated data on 30,871 pregnant women. Dietary studies were categorised into either caffeine, carbohydrate, fat, protein, calcium, fast food and recognized dietary patterns. Diets such as Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and Alternate Healthy Eating Index diet (AHEI) were associated with 15–38% reduced relative risk of GDM. In contrast, frequent consumption of potato, meat/processed meats, and protein (% energy) derived from animal sources was associated with an increased risk of GDM. Compared to no PA, any pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy PA was associated with 30% and 21% reduced odds of GDM, respectively. Engaging in >90 min/week of leisure time PA before pregnancy was associated with 46% decreased odds of GDM. We conclude that diets resembling MedDiet/DASH diet as well as higher PA levels before or in early pregnancy were associated with lower risks or odds of GDM respectively. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) as CRD42016027795. View Full-Text
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Mijatovic-Vukas, J.; Capling, L.; Cheng, S.; Stamatakis, E.; Louie, J.; Cheung, N.W.; Markovic, T.; Ross, G.; Senior, A.; Brand-Miller, J.C.; Flood, V.M. Associations of Diet and Physical Activity with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 698.
Mijatovic-Vukas J, Capling L, Cheng S, Stamatakis E, Louie J, Cheung NW, Markovic T, Ross G, Senior A, Brand-Miller JC, Flood VM. Associations of Diet and Physical Activity with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2018; 10(6):698.Chicago/Turabian Style
Mijatovic-Vukas, Jovana; Capling, Louise; Cheng, Sonia; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Louie, Jimmy; Cheung, N. W.; Markovic, Tania; Ross, Glynis; Senior, Alistair; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.; Flood, Victoria M. 2018. "Associations of Diet and Physical Activity with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Nutrients 10, no. 6: 698.
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