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Open AccessArticle

Longitudinal Study of the Role of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Fractional Excretion of Magnesium in Children: Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitors

1
Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, T3.34, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
2
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060677
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 27 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
Background: It was shown in animal models and adults that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in the pathophysiology of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced renal magnesium loss. In children, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear, which was set as the purpose of the present study. Methods: Children with nephrotic syndrome and renal transplant children treated with CNI (n = 50) and non-CNI treated children (n = 46) were included in this study. Urine and serum samples were collected at three time points to determine magnesium, creatinine, and EGF. The magnesium intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Serum Mg2+ and urinary EGF/creatinine were significantly lower in the CNI treated children, with significantly more CNI-treated children developing hypomagnesaemia. In the latter patients, the fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg2+) was significantly higher. Urinary EGF, age, renal function, and serum magnesium were independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. Only 29% of the children reached the recommended daily intake of magnesium. The magnesium intake did not differ between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic patients and was not a predictor of the FE Mg2+. Conclusions: In CNI-treated children who developed hypomagnesemia, the FE Mg2+ was increased. The urinary EGF concentration, age, and renal function are independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidermal growth factor; magnesium; children; magnesium intake; fractional excretion; calcineurin inhibitor; kidney transplantation; nephrotic syndrome epidermal growth factor; magnesium; children; magnesium intake; fractional excretion; calcineurin inhibitor; kidney transplantation; nephrotic syndrome
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Ledeganck, K.J.; Anné, C.; De Monie, A.; Meybosch, S.; Verpooten, G.A.; Vinckx, M.; Van Hoeck, K.; Van Eyck, A.; De Winter, B.Y.; Trouet, D. Longitudinal Study of the Role of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Fractional Excretion of Magnesium in Children: Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitors. Nutrients 2018, 10, 677.

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