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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060676

Factors Associated with Undernutrition in Children under the Age of Two Years: Secondary Data Analysis Based on the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012–2013

1
Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, 54600 Lahore, Pakistan
2
Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of the Punjab, 54600 Lahore, Pakistan
3
Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract

In Pakistan, 96% of the children under the age of two years do not receive an adequate diet. The main aim of this paper is to identify the sociodemographic, nutritional, and health-related factors associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight in children under the age of two years in Pakistan. Secondary data analysis was performed based on the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012–2013. The analysis was limited to children under the age of two years (n = 984). Analysis was done using bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression. The incidence of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children was 28.3%, 12.1%, and 27.9%, respectively. The odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight increased with the child’s age. The odds of stunting and underweight increased with the mother’s low body mass index, low access to information, high birth order of child, consanguineous marriages, father’s low education, rural settlement, poor toilet facilities, and low vitamin A consumption. The odds of wasting increased in children who were not being breastfed, but no significant relation was seen with stunting and underweight. There is a need to improve child nutritional status in Pakistan by addressing issues such as poverty, low parental education, low micronutrient intake, and targeting provinces where undernutrition was found to be higher. View Full-Text
Keywords: child undernutrition; micronutrient consumption; maternal factors; Demographic and Health Survey; Pakistan child undernutrition; micronutrient consumption; maternal factors; Demographic and Health Survey; Pakistan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tariq, J.; Sajjad, A.; Zakar, R.; Zakar, M.Z.; Fischer, F. Factors Associated with Undernutrition in Children under the Age of Two Years: Secondary Data Analysis Based on the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012–2013. Nutrients 2018, 10, 676.

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