Exercise and Nutrition Strategies to Counteract Sarcopenic Obesity
Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, 1097 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Medical Intensive Care Unit, Nimes University Hospital, place du Pr Debré, 30029 Nimes, France
Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, CRNH Auvergne, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service Nutrition Clinique, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelenlaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050605
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
As the population is aging rapidly, there is a strong increase in the number of individuals with chronic disease and physical limitations. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the increase in fat mass (obesity) are important contributors to the development of physical limitations, which aggravates the chronic diseases prognosis. The combination of the two conditions, which is referred to as sarcopenic obesity, amplifies the risk for these negative health outcomes, which demonstrates the importance of preventing or counteracting sarcopenic obesity. One of the main challenges is the preservation of the skeletal muscle mass and function, while simultaneously reducing the fat mass in this population. Exercise and nutrition are two key components in the development, as well as the prevention and treatment of sarcopenic obesity. The main aim of this narrative review is to summarize the different, both separate and combined, exercise and nutrition strategies so as to prevent and/or counteract sarcopenic obesity. This review therefore provides a current update of the various exercise and nutritional strategies to improve the contrasting body composition changes and physical functioning in sarcopenic obese individuals.