Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women
AbstractData regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy. View Full-Text
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Al-Musharaf, S.; Fouda, M.A.; Turkestani, I.Z.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Sabico, S.; Alnaami, A.M.; Wani, K.; Hussain, S.D.; Alraqebah, B.; Al-Serehi, A.; Alshingetti, N.M.; Al-Daghri, N.; McTernan, P.G.; Wimalawansa, S.J.; Saravanan, P. Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 489.
Al-Musharaf S, Fouda MA, Turkestani IZ, Al-Ajlan A, Sabico S, Alnaami AM, Wani K, Hussain SD, Alraqebah B, Al-Serehi A, Alshingetti NM, Al-Daghri N, McTernan PG, Wimalawansa SJ, Saravanan P. Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women. Nutrients. 2018; 10(4):489.Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Musharaf, Sara; Fouda, Mona A.; Turkestani, Iqbal Z.; Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman; Sabico, Shaun; Alnaami, Abdullah M.; Wani, Kaiser; Hussain, Syed D.; Alraqebah, Buthaynah; Al-Serehi, Amal; Alshingetti, Naemah M.; Al-Daghri, Nasser; McTernan, Philip G.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Saravanan, Ponnusamy. 2018. "Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women." Nutrients 10, no. 4: 489.
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