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Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040488

Habitual Flavonoid Intake from Fruit and Vegetables during Adolescence and Serum Lipid Levels in Early Adulthood: A Prospective Analysis

1
DONALD Study Dortmund, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (IEL), Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
2
Department of Sports and Health, Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
3
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
4
German Center for Diabetes Research, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
5
Pediatric Clinic Dortmund, 44317 Dortmund, Germany
6
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (IEL), Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
7
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract

Flavonoids have been implicated in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In a prospective approach, we investigated whether habitual flavonoid intake from fruit, vegetables and juices (FlavFVJ) during adolescence is associated with adult levels of serum lipids, one of the main CVD risk factors. This analysis included healthy participants from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study, who had provided a fasting blood sample in adulthood (aged 18–39 years), data on FlavFVJ intake during adolescence (females: 9–15 years, males: 10–16 years)—estimated either from multiple 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 257), or from validated biomarker hippuric acid (uHA) excretion from multiple 24-h urine samples (n = 233)—together with information on relevant covariates. In multivariable linear regression analyses, a higher FlavFVJ intake during adolescence was independently associated with higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among males (Ptrend = 0.038); however, the inclusion of adult waist circumference attenuated this association (Ptrend = 0.053). FlavFVJ was not associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; all Ptrend ≥ 0.1), nor was uHA excretion with any serum lipid outcome among males (all Ptrend ≥ 0.5). Neither FlavFVJ intake nor uHA excretion was associated with serum lipids among women (all Ptrend ≥ 0.1). However, a higher flavonoid intake from fruit and vegetables was independently related to lower LDL-C levels (Ptrend = 0.021), while a higher intake from juices was associated with higher LDL-C levels (Ptrend = 0.016) among females. In conclusion, a higher flavonoid intake from fruit, vegetables and/or juices during adolescence may be linked to cholesterol levels in early adulthood in a sex- and food source-specific manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: 24-h urine; puberty; adulthood; biomarker of intake; blood lipid profile; flavonoids from fruit and vegetables; flavonoids from juices; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hippuric acid; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 24-h urine; puberty; adulthood; biomarker of intake; blood lipid profile; flavonoids from fruit and vegetables; flavonoids from juices; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hippuric acid; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Penczynski, K.J.; Remer, T.; Herder, C.; Kalhoff, H.; Rienks, J.; Markgraf, D.F.; Roden, M.; Buyken, A.E. Habitual Flavonoid Intake from Fruit and Vegetables during Adolescence and Serum Lipid Levels in Early Adulthood: A Prospective Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 488.

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