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Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040405

Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Nutrition and Functional Food Science, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1 (A104), 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
2
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University, De Elst 1 Building 122, 6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Abstract

Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and oxidative stress regulation in ADHD. As a result, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress could develop, which can lead to ADHD symptoms, for example by chronic T-cell-mediated neuroinflammation, as well as by neuronal oxidative damage and loss of normal cerebral functions. Therefore, modulation of immune system activity and oxidant-antioxidant balance using nutritional approaches might have potential in ADHD treatment. The use of natural antioxidants against oxidative conditions is an emerging field in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols, for example, have antioxidant capacities as well as immunoregulatory effects and, therefore, appear appropriate in ADHD therapy. This review can stimulate the development and investigation of dietary antioxidant treatment in ADHD, which is highly desired. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; antioxidant; immunity; oxidative stress; Pycnogenol® ADHD; antioxidant; immunity; oxidative stress; Pycnogenol®
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Verlaet, A.A.J.; Maasakkers, C.M.; Hermans, N.; Savelkoul, H.F.J. Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD. Nutrients 2018, 10, 405.

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