Next Article in Journal
Efficacy of Nutritional Interventions on Inflammatory Markers in Haemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Limited Meta-Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Dietary Sialyllactose Does Not Influence Measures of Recognition Memory or Diurnal Activity in the Young Pig
Open AccessArticle

Macular Xanthophylls Are Related to Intellectual Ability among Adults with Overweight and Obesity

1
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3
Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040396
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
Excess adiposity or obesity has been inversely related to cognitive function and macular xanthophyll status. However, whether the neuroprotective effects of macular xanthophylls on cognitive function are independent of excess adiposity is unclear. We investigated the relationship between macular xanthophylls and intellectual ability among adults (N = 114) between 25 and 45 years with overweight and obesity (≥25 kg/m2). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry were used to assess whole body adiposity (%Fat) and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), respectively. Dietary xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were assessed using 7-day diet records. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2) was used to assess general intelligence (IQ) as well as fluid and crystallized intelligence. Bivariate correlations revealed that MPOD was inversely related to %Fat and positively associated with IQ and fluid intelligence. Although %Fat was inversely correlated to IQ and fluid intelligence, this relationship did not persist following adjustment for sex and MPOD. Further, MPOD was an independent predictor of IQ and fluid intelligence. However, no significant relationships were observed between MPOD and crystalized intelligence. These results suggest that macular xanthophylls are selectively related to fluid intelligence, regardless of degree of adiposity among adults with overweight and obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiposity; retinal; carotenoids; cognitive function; lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoids adiposity; retinal; carotenoids; cognitive function; lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoids
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, N.A.; Walk, A.M.; Edwards, C.G.; Jones, A.R.; Cannavale, C.N.; Thompson, S.V.; Reeser, G.E.; Holscher, H.D. Macular Xanthophylls Are Related to Intellectual Ability among Adults with Overweight and Obesity. Nutrients 2018, 10, 396.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop