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Open AccessArticle

Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, Viale SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
School of Biosciences and Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Images Sciences, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Centre, Building 307B, Room 213, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 213;
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. View Full-Text
Keywords: almonds; particle size; lipid bioaccessibility; microstructural analysis almonds; particle size; lipid bioaccessibility; microstructural analysis
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Mandalari, G.; Parker, M.L.; Grundy, M.M.-L.; Grassby, T.; Smeriglio, A.; Bisignano, C.; Raciti, R.; Trombetta, D.; Baer, D.J.; Wilde, P.J. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection. Nutrients 2018, 10, 213.

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