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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121912

Dietary Composition and Cardiovascular Risk: A Mediator or a Bystander?

Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece
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Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Abstract

The role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has long been debated. The established notion of the deleterious effects of fat is recently under question, with numerous studies demonstrating the benefits of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in terms of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic derangement. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), are the types of fat that favor metabolic markers and are key components of the Mediterranean Diet, which is considered an ideal dietary pattern with great cardioprotective effects. Except for macronutrients, however, micronutrients like polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins act on molecular pathways that affect oxidative stress, endothelial function, and lipid and glucose homeostasis. In relation to these metabolic markers, the human gut microbiome is constantly revealed, with its composition being altered by even small dietary changes and different microbial populations being associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, thus becoming the target for potential new treatment interventions. This review aims to present the most recent data concerning different dietary patterns at both the macro- and micronutrient level and their association with atherosclerosis, obesity, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; nutrition; nutrition interventions; chronic disease; microbiome atherosclerosis; nutrition; nutrition interventions; chronic disease; microbiome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Korakas, E.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, A.; Lambadiari, V. Dietary Composition and Cardiovascular Risk: A Mediator or a Bystander? Nutrients 2018, 10, 1912.

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