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Open AccessArticle

Testosterone-Associated Dietary Pattern Predicts Low Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadism

1
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Metabolism and Obesity Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
7
Chinese Taipei Society for the Study of Obesity, CTSSO, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111786
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract

Obesity and low serum testosterone (T) levels are interrelated and strongly influenced by dietary factors, and their alteration entails a great risk of hypogonadism. Substantial evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between nutrient metabolism (e.g., glucose, lipids, and iron) and T levels in men; however, T-related dietary patterns remain unclear. This study investigated the dietary patterns associated with serum total T levels and its predictive effect on hypogonadism and the body composition. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, and food frequency questionnaires were collected for 125 adult men. Dietary patterns were derived using a reduced rank regression from 32 food groups. Overall prevalence rates of central obesity and hypogonadism were 48.0% and 15.7%, respectively. An adjusted linear regression showed that age, insulin, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and transferrin saturation independently predicted serum total T levels (all p < 0.01). The total T-related dietary pattern (a high consumption of bread and pastries, dairy products, and desserts, eating out, and a low intake of homemade foods, noodles, and dark green vegetables) independently predicted hypogonadism (odds ratio: 5.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.11‒29.51, p < 0.05) for those with the highest dietary pattern scores (Q4) compared to those with the lowest (Q1). Scores were also negatively correlated with the skeletal muscle mass (p for trend = 0.002) but positively correlated with the total body fat mass (p for trend = 0.002), visceral fat mass (p for trend = 0.001), and to a lesser extent, subcutaneous fat mass (p for trend = 0.035) after adjusting for age. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm that improvement in dietary pattern can improve T levels and reduce hypogonadism. View Full-Text
Keywords: testosterone; dietary pattern; iron; red blood cell aggregation; insulin; obesity; hypogonadism; eating out testosterone; dietary pattern; iron; red blood cell aggregation; insulin; obesity; hypogonadism; eating out
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Hu, T.-Y.; Chen, Y.C.; Lin, P.; Shih, C.-K.; Bai, C.-H.; Yuan, K.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chang, J.-S. Testosterone-Associated Dietary Pattern Predicts Low Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadism. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1786.

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