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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101551

Breakfast in Japan: Findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey

1
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2
Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
3
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Abstract

We assessed breakfast in Japan using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary data were obtained from 1444 children (aged 6–11 years), 1134 adolescents (aged 12–17 years), 6531 younger adults (aged 18–49 years), and 13,343 older adults (aged ≥ 50 years), using a one-day weighed dietary record. Overall, 97% of participants reported consuming breakfast. Compared with breakfast skippers, breakfast consumers had a higher daily diet quality score assessed by the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). For those who consumed breakfast, breakfast accounted for 20–25% of daily energy intake. In comparison with the contribution to energy, breakfast accounted for higher proportions of carbohydrate and riboflavin, and lower proportions of MUFA, n-3 PUFA, thiamin, and niacin, as well as vitamins B-6 and C. The overall diet quality (NRF9.3 score) was positively associated with breakfast intake of protein, n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and almost all micronutrients examined, and inversely with that of added sugar. For foods, the NRF9.3 score was positively associated with breakfast intake of rice, potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and eggs and inversely with that of bread, sugar, and soft drinks. The findings will be useful in developing dietary recommendations for a balanced breakfast among Japanese. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; diet quality; nutrient intake; food intake; NRF9.3; Japan breakfast; diet quality; nutrient intake; food intake; NRF9.3; Japan
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Murakami, K.; Livingstone, M.B.E.; Fujiwara, A.; Sasaki, S. Breakfast in Japan: Findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1551.

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