Next Article in Journal
Spatial Disparity in Food Environment and Household Economic Resources Related to Food Insecurity in Rural Korean Households with Older Adults
Previous Article in Journal
On the Reporting of Odds Ratios and Risk Ratios
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal Choline and Betaine Supplementation Modifies the Placental Response to Hyperglycemia in Mice and Human Trophoblasts
Open AccessReview

Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle

1
BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
2
Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
3
South Australia Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101513
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
Choline, an essential dietary nutrient for humans, is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, the methyl group donor, betaine, and phospholipids; and therefore, choline is involved in a broad range of critical physiological functions across all stages of the life cycle. The current dietary recommendations for choline have been established as Adequate Intakes (AIs) for total choline; however, dietary choline is present in multiple different forms that are both water-soluble (e.g., free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) and lipid-soluble (e.g., phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin). Interestingly, the different dietary choline forms consumed during infancy differ from those in adulthood. This can be explained by the primary food source, where the majority of choline present in human milk is in the water-soluble form, versus lipid-soluble forms for foods consumed later on. This review summarizes the current knowledge on dietary recommendations and assessment methods, and dietary choline intake from food sources across the life cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; dietary choline forms; human milk; breast milk; dietary recommendations; adequate intake; dietary assessment choline; dietary choline forms; human milk; breast milk; dietary recommendations; adequate intake; dietary assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wiedeman, A.M.; Barr, S.I.; Green, T.J.; Xu, Z.; Innis, S.M.; Kitts, D.D. Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1513.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop