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Article

A Combined Dietary and Cognitive Intervention in 3–5-Year-Old Children in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Research Center, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
2
Nestlé Indonesia, Nestlé Nutrition Institute, TB Simatupang kav 88 Jakarta Selatan, Jakarta 12520, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI, Depok 16424, Indonesia
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia-Department of Child Health Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta Pusat 10430, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors made equal contributions to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101394
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
Early childhood nutritional interventions typically combine nutritional and psychosocial stimulation. Such combined interventions result in long-lasting improvements of cognitive abilities in children who are malnourished. Here, we investigated potential cognitive abilities in normally developing children in Indonesia who were, however, at risk for suboptimal cognitive development due to little psychosocial stimulation in their home environment. In a randomized controlled intervention, children of the experimental group received nutritional supplementation combined with cognitive stimulation. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included cognitive development and functioning, behavior, and mother–child interaction. The experimental and control group received nutritional supplementation in the form of a fortified or unfortified milk powder, respectively. Additionally, the children and parents of the experimental group jointly engaged in daily learning activities at home and performed iPad-based tasks designed to foster cognitive abilities. The experimental group compared to the control group displayed a significantly higher increase in intelligence quotient as well as a significantly larger reduction in attentional problems after the intervention. These results indicate that low-level cognitive stimulation in combination with nutritional supplementation during early childhood can be an effective intervention that improves global cognitive functioning in healthy developing children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359669. View Full-Text
Keywords: growing up milk; fortification; cognitive stimulation; cognitive development growing up milk; fortification; cognitive stimulation; cognitive development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schneider, N.; Geiser, E.; Gosoniu, L.M.; Wibowo, Y.; Gentile-Rapinett, G.; Tedjasaputra, M.S.; Sastroasmoro, S. A Combined Dietary and Cognitive Intervention in 3–5-Year-Old Children in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1394. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101394

AMA Style

Schneider N, Geiser E, Gosoniu LM, Wibowo Y, Gentile-Rapinett G, Tedjasaputra MS, Sastroasmoro S. A Combined Dietary and Cognitive Intervention in 3–5-Year-Old Children in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018; 10(10):1394. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schneider, Nora, Eveline Geiser, Laura M. Gosoniu, Yulianti Wibowo, Gertrude Gentile-Rapinett, Mayke S. Tedjasaputra, and Sudigdo Sastroasmoro. 2018. "A Combined Dietary and Cognitive Intervention in 3–5-Year-Old Children in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Nutrients 10, no. 10: 1394. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101394

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