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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101365

Bee Collected Pollen with Enhanced Health Benefits, Produced by Fermentation with a Kombucha Consortium

1
Faculty of Biotechnologies, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Bucharest 011464, Romania
2
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Bucharest 060031, Romania
3
Medica Laboratories Srl, Otopeni 075100, Romania
4
Departments of Biotechnology and Bioresources, National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry-ICECHIM, Bucharest 060021, Romania
These authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Abstract

The bioavailability of pollen bioactive compounds for humans is limited. In this study, our aim was to enhance the health-related benefits of pollen by fermentation with a Kombucha/SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts) consortium. We performed the fermentation of pollen suspended from the beginning with SCOBY on sweetened green tea or on Kombucha vinegar, by adding pollen after 20 days of Kombucha fermentation. We analyzed: formation of bioactive compounds (anti-oxidant polyphenols, soluble silicon, hydroxy-acids, short chain fatty acids—SCFA); parameters related to Kombucha fermentation (dynamics of lactic acid bacteria—LAB, formation of organic acids, soluble sugar evolution on Kombucha vinegar); the influence of Kombucha fermentation on pollen morphology and ultrastructure; in vitro cytotoxic and antitumoral effects of the Kombucha fermented pollen. The pollen addition increases LAB proportion in the total number of SCOBY microbial strains. SEM images highlight the adhesion of the SCOBY bacteria to pollen. Ultrastructural analysis reveals the release of the pollen content. The content of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, soluble silicon species and SCFA) is higher in the fermented pollen and the product shows a moderate antitumoral effect on Caco-2 cells. The health benefits of pollen are enhanced by fermentation with a Kombucha consortium. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollen; multi-floral; bee collected; fermentation; symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts—SCOBY; lactic acid bacteria—LAB; anti-oxidant polyphenols; soluble silicon; short-chain fatty acids—SCFA pollen; multi-floral; bee collected; fermentation; symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts—SCOBY; lactic acid bacteria—LAB; anti-oxidant polyphenols; soluble silicon; short-chain fatty acids—SCFA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Uțoiu, E.; Matei, F.; Toma, A.; Diguță, C.F.; Ștefan, L.M.; Mănoiu, S.; Vrăjmașu, V.V.; Moraru, I.; Oancea, A.; Israel-Roming, F.; Cornea, C.P.; Constantinescu-Aruxandei, D.; Moraru, A.; Oancea, F. Bee Collected Pollen with Enhanced Health Benefits, Produced by Fermentation with a Kombucha Consortium. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1365.

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