During the 1970s some investigators proposed that refined carbohydrates, especially sugar and a low intake of dietary fiber, were major factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). This suggestion was eclipsed by the belief that an excess intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was the key dietary factor, a view that prevailed from roughly 1974 to 2014. Findings that have accumulated since 1990 inform us that the role of SFA in the causation of CHD has been much exaggerated. A switch from SFA to refined carbohydrates does not lower the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol in the blood and therefore does not prevent CHD. A reduced intake of SFA combined with an increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids lowers the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol; this may reduce the risk of CHD. The evidence linking carbohydrate-rich foods with CHD has been steadily strengthening. Refined carbohydrates, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, increase the risk of CHD. Conversely, whole grains and cereal fiber are protective. An extra one or 2 servings per day of these foods increases or decreases risk by approximately 10% to 20%.
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