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Open AccessArticle

Prospective Study of Dietary Zinc Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CCEB), School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 38;
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
Several animal and human studies have shown that zinc is associated with cellular damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study aims to investigate dietary zinc and the zinc-iron ratio, as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large longitudinal study of mid-age Australian women (aged 50–61 years). Data was self-reported and validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intake. Energy-adjusted zinc was ranked using quintiles and predictors of incident CVD were examined using stepwise logistic regression. After six years of follow-up, 320 incident CVD cases were established. A positive association between dietary zinc intake, zinc-iron ratio and risk of CVD was observed even after adjusting for potential dietary and non-dietary confounders. Compared to those with the lowest quintile of zinc, those in the highest quintile (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.08–2.62) and zinc-iron ratio (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05–2.81) had almost twice the odds of developing CVD (p trend = 0.007). This study shows that high dietary zinc intake and zinc-iron ratio is associated with a greater incidence of CVD in women. Further studies are required detailing the source of zinc and iron in diet and their precise roles when compared to other essential nutrients. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; cohort; Australia; zinc; women; cardiovascular disease diet; cohort; Australia; zinc; women; cardiovascular disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Milton, A.H.; Vashum, K.P.; McEvoy, M.; Hussain, S.; McElduff, P.; Byles, J.; Attia, J. Prospective Study of Dietary Zinc Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 38.

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