# Fast Wideband Beamforming Using Convolutional Neural Network

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Wideband Signal Model

## 3. Wideband Beamforming Prediction Network

#### 3.1. WBPNet Model

#### 3.2. Training the WBPNet

Algorithm 1: WBPNet Training. |

1: Input: ${\mathbf{x}}_{train}$, $\phi $, ${\mathbf{y}}_{train}$, $\eta $ and the number of epoch E |

2: Initialization: ${\mathbf{W}}_{i}$, ${\mathbf{b}}_{i}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">i=0,1,2,3$ using the Kaiming criteria; $l\_\mathrm{best}=999$ |

3: for $e=0$: E, do |

4: if ($e\%20==0$) do$\eta \leftarrow \eta \phi $ else $\eta \leftarrow \eta $ifend |

5: CONV1: ${\mathbf{x}}_{e1}\leftarrow \mathrm{dropout}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{LeakyReLU}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{BN}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\mathbf{x}}_{train}\ast {\mathbf{W}}_{0}+{\mathbf{b}}_{0}$ |

6: CONV2: ${\mathbf{x}}_{\mathrm{e}2}\leftarrow \mathrm{dropout}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{LeakyReLU}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{BN}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\mathbf{x}}_{\mathrm{e}1}\ast {\mathbf{W}}_{1}+{\mathbf{b}}_{1}$ |

7: CONV3: ${\mathbf{x}}_{e3}\leftarrow \mathrm{dropout}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{LeakyReLU}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathrm{BN}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\mathbf{x}}_{e2}\ast {\mathbf{W}}_{2}+{\mathbf{b}}_{2}$ |

8: FC:$\mathbf{y}\leftarrow \mathrm{flatten}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\mathbf{x}}_{e3}$ |

9: $l\leftarrow L\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\mathbf{y}}_{train},\mathbf{y}$, where l is the residual error, L is the loss function and we use MSE criterion. |

10: if ($l<l\_\mathrm{best}$) do |

$\stackrel{\wedge}{{\mathbf{W}}_{i}}\leftarrow {\mathbf{W}}_{i}$, $\stackrel{\wedge}{{\mathbf{b}}_{i}}\leftarrow {\mathbf{b}}_{i}$, $l\_\mathrm{best}\leftarrow l$ |

ifend |

11: back-propagation: $\left\{\begin{array}{c}{{\mathbf{W}}_{i}}^{\prime}\leftarrow {\mathbf{W}}_{i}-\eta \frac{\partial \mathrm{L}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathbf{W},\mathbf{b}}{}\partial {\mathbf{W}}_{i}\hfill \end{array},{{\mathbf{b}}_{i}}^{\prime}\leftarrow {\mathbf{b}}_{i}-\eta \frac{\partial \mathrm{L}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\mathbf{W},\mathbf{b}}{}\partial {\mathbf{b}}_{i}\right)$ |

12: ${\mathbf{W}}_{i}\leftarrow {{\mathbf{W}}_{i}}^{\prime}$, ${\mathbf{b}}_{i}\leftarrow {{\mathbf{b}}_{i}}^{\prime}$ |

13: forend |

14: output:${\mathbf{W}}_{i}\_\mathrm{best}\leftarrow \stackrel{\wedge}{{\mathbf{W}}_{i}}$, ${\mathbf{b}}_{i}\_\mathrm{best}\leftarrow \stackrel{\wedge}{{\mathbf{b}}_{i}}$ |

**Step 4**in Algorithm 1. The detailed expression for each epoch can be given as (11)

**Step 12**of Algorithm 1, where learning rate $\eta $ can control the intensity of residual errors during back-propagation.

## 4. Simulation Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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FCFB-FS | FCFB-MS | WBPNet-FS (Proposed) | |
---|---|---|---|

($\mathit{N}=400$) | ($\mathit{N}=4000$) | ($\mathit{N}=400$) | |

Undistorted response to the SOI | x | √ | √ |

Deep nulls to anti-jamming | x | √ | √ |

Direction | FCFB-FS | FCFB-MS | WBPNet-FS (Proposed) | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

($\mathit{N}=400$) | ($\mathit{N}=4000$) | ||||||||||

$\mathit{N}$ | 50 | 100 | 150 | 200 | 250 | 300 | 350 | 400 | |||

$({\theta}_{0},{\theta}_{{j}_{1}})$ | $-13.4808$ | $4.5515$ | $4.1722$ | $4.3071$ | $4.3240$ | $4.3824$ | $4.4421$ | $4.4693$ | $4.4859$ | $4.4885$ | |

$({\theta}_{0},{\theta}_{{j}_{2}})$ | $-12.5862$ | $4.5512$ | $4.1294$ | $4.2584$ | $4.2825$ | $4.3358$ | $4.3892$ | $4.4076$ | $4.4452$ | $4.4571$ | |

$({\theta}_{0},{\theta}_{{j}_{3}})$ | $-12.6891$ | $4.5273$ | $4.0932$ | $4.2211$ | $4.2567$ | $4.2978$ | $4.3573$ | $4.3729$ | $4.4085$ | $4.4326$ |

FCFB-FS/FCFB-MS | WBPNet (Proposed) | ||
---|---|---|---|

Estimate the covariance matrix | $N\times {\left(\right)}^{MK}2$ | Conv1 | $M\times N\times k{e}^{2}\times {C}_{{i}_{1}}\times {C}_{{o}_{1}}$ |

The inversion of covariance matrix | $O\left(\right)open="["\; close="]">{\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">MK}^{}3$ | Conv2 | $M\times N\times k{e}^{2}\times {C}_{{i}_{2}}\times {C}_{{o}_{2}}$ |

Obtain the optimal weight vector | $O\left({I}^{3}\right)+2{I}^{2}MK+I[2{MK}^{2}+MK]$ | Conv3 | $M\times N\times k{e}^{2}\times {C}_{{i}_{3}}\times {C}_{{o}_{3}}$ |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wu, X.; Luo, J.; Li, G.; Zhang, S.; Sheng, W.
Fast Wideband Beamforming Using Convolutional Neural Network. *Remote Sens.* **2023**, *15*, 712.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030712

**AMA Style**

Wu X, Luo J, Li G, Zhang S, Sheng W.
Fast Wideband Beamforming Using Convolutional Neural Network. *Remote Sensing*. 2023; 15(3):712.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030712

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wu, Xun, Jie Luo, Guowei Li, Shurui Zhang, and Weixing Sheng.
2023. "Fast Wideband Beamforming Using Convolutional Neural Network" *Remote Sensing* 15, no. 3: 712.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030712