Next Article in Journal
Semi-Supervised Classification for Intra-Pulse Modulation of Radar Emitter Signals Using Convolutional Neural Network
Next Article in Special Issue
Upgrades of the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network in 2021
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of Numerical Methods for Transforming UTM Plane Coordinates to Lambert Plane Coordinates
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pulse Parameters and Peak Currents of Return Strokes Observed by the Ningxia FALMA in the Chinese Inland Areas
Article

Multispectral Optical Diagnostics of Lightning from Space

1
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, Spain
2
National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Space), 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
3
Image Processing Laboratory, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
4
Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stefano Federico, Gaopeng Lu, Yang Zhang and Fanchao Lyu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092057
Received: 8 April 2022 / Revised: 22 April 2022 / Accepted: 23 April 2022 / Published: 25 April 2022
We present spectroscopic diagnostic methods that allow us to estimate the gas and the electron temperature in emerged lightning stroke channels (from thunderclouds) observed by the photometers and cameras of the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM). We identify the species (molecules, atoms and ions) producing light emission in different wavelengths, and how the blue (337 ± 2 nm), red (777.4 ± 2.5 nm) and ultraviolet (180–230 nm) optical emissions captured by ASIM photometers change as a function of the temperature in the lightning stroke channel. We find good agreement between the light curves of the emerged lightning observed by ASIM and the synthetic ones obtained from calculated spectra. Our results suggest that (i) early stage (high temperature > 20,000 K) emerged lightning strokes at high altitude can contribute to the optical signals measured by the PH2 photometer (180–230 nm), (ii) intermediate stage (mid temperatures, 6000–21,000 K) emerged lightning strokes can produce 777.4 nm near-infrared radiation (observable by PH3) exhibiting higher intensity than PH1 observable N2 SPS between ∼6000 K and ∼8000 K, and than ion optical emissions (336.734 nm and 337.714 nm) between ∼16,000 K and ∼21,000 K, (iii) from ∼16,000 K to 35,000 K, neutral oxygen 777.4 nm radiation and ion emissions at 336.734 nm and 337.714 nm can be simultaneoulsy observed but 777.4 nm dominates only between ∼16,000 K and ∼21,000 K, (iv) the availability of detections with a narrow 0.5 nm gap filtered photometer (336.75–337.25 nm), with the same or better sensitivity than PH1 in ASIM-MMIA but with a central wavelength at exactly 337.0 nm (the strongest N2 SPS transition), would give access to the late stage of lightning strokes (emerged or not) when temperatures are between 8000 K and 5000 K (or lower for a photometer with better sensitivity than PH1 in ASIM-MMIA) when the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) maximizes. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning spectra from space; multispectral optical diagnostics; thermal non-equilibrium; ASIM; lightning channel gas temperature; lightning ultraviolet optical emissions lightning spectra from space; multispectral optical diagnostics; thermal non-equilibrium; ASIM; lightning channel gas temperature; lightning ultraviolet optical emissions
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Invernón, F.J.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.; Passas-Varo, M.; Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Reglero, V.; Østgaard, N. Multispectral Optical Diagnostics of Lightning from Space. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092057

AMA Style

Pérez-Invernón FJ, Gordillo-Vázquez FJ, Passas-Varo M, Neubert T, Chanrion O, Reglero V, Østgaard N. Multispectral Optical Diagnostics of Lightning from Space. Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(9):2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092057

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez-Invernón, Francisco J., Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, María Passas-Varo, Torsten Neubert, Olivier Chanrion, Victor Reglero, and Nikolai Østgaard. 2022. "Multispectral Optical Diagnostics of Lightning from Space" Remote Sensing 14, no. 9: 2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092057

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop