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Evolution of Brightness and Color of the Night Sky in Madrid

Departamento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Facultad CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de las Ciencias 1, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Instituto de Física de Partículas y del Cosmos, IPARCOS, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miroslav Kocifaj
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1511;
Received: 20 February 2021 / Revised: 6 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Pollution Monitoring Using Remote Sensing Data)
Major schemes to replace other streetlight technologies with Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lamps are being undertaken across much of the world. This is predicted to have important consequences for nighttime sky brightness and color. Here, we report the results of a long-term study of these characteristics focused on the skies above Madrid. The sky brightness and color monitoring station at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (inside the city) collected Johnson B, V, and R sky brightness data, Sky Quality Meter (SQM), and Telescope Encoder Sky Sensor-WiFi (TESS-W) broadband photometry throughout the night, every night between 2010–2020. Our analysis includes a data filtering process that can be used with other similar sky brightness monitoring data. Major changes in sky brightness and color took place during 2015–2016, when a sizable fraction of the streetlamps in Madrid changed from High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) to LEDs. The sky brightness detected in the Johnson B band darkened by 14% from 2011 to 2015 and brightened by 32% from 2015 to 2019. View Full-Text
Keywords: light pollution; photometry; sky brightness; street lighting retrofit light pollution; photometry; sky brightness; street lighting retrofit
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MDPI and ACS Style

Robles, J.; Zamorano, J.; Pascual, S.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Gaston, K.J. Evolution of Brightness and Color of the Night Sky in Madrid. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1511.

AMA Style

Robles J, Zamorano J, Pascual S, Sánchez de Miguel A, Gallego J, Gaston KJ. Evolution of Brightness and Color of the Night Sky in Madrid. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(8):1511.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Robles, José, Jaime Zamorano, Sergio Pascual, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Jesús Gallego, and Kevin J. Gaston 2021. "Evolution of Brightness and Color of the Night Sky in Madrid" Remote Sensing 13, no. 8: 1511.

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