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Article

Estimating Ecological Responses to Climatic Variability on Reclaimed and Unmined Lands Using Enhanced Vegetation Index

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School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
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School of Design and the Built Environment, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia
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School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
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Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
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National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
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Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Land Rehabilitation, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100035, China
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Technology Innovation Centre for Ecological Restoration in Mining Areas, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep Peñuelas
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(6), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061100
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
Climatic impact on re-established ecosystems at reclaimed mined lands may have changed. However, little knowledge is available about the difference in vegetation–climate relationships between reclaimed and unmined lands. In this study, ecological responses to climatic variability on reclaimed and neighbouring unmined lands were estimated using remote-sensing data at the Pingshuo Mega coal mine, one of the largest coal mines with long-term reclamation history in China. Time-series MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data and meteorological data from 1997 to 2017 were collected. Results show significantly different vegetation–climate relationships between reclaimed and unmined lands. First, the accumulation periods of all climatic variables were much longer on reclaimed mining lands. Second, vegetation on reclaimed lands responded to variabilities in temperature, rainfall, air humidity, and wind speed, while undisturbed vegetation only responded to variabilities of temperature and air humidity. Third, climatic variability made a much higher contribution to EVI variation on reclaimed land (20.0–46.5%) than on unmined land (0.7–1.7%). These differences were primarily caused by limited ecosystem resilience, and changed site hydrology and microclimate on reclaimed land. Thus, this study demonstrates that the legacy effects of surface mining can critically change on-site vegetation–climate relationships, which impacts the structure, functions, and stability of reclaimed ecosystems. Vegetation–climate relationships of reclaimed ecosystems deserve further research, and remote-sensing vegetation data are an effective source for relevant studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced vegetation index; ecological response to climate; climate change; land reclamation; reclaimed ecosystem; MODIS EVI; remote sensing; generalised additive model enhanced vegetation index; ecological response to climate; climate change; land reclamation; reclaimed ecosystem; MODIS EVI; remote sensing; generalised additive model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fan, X.; Song, Y.; Zhu, C.; Balzter, H.; Bai, Z. Estimating Ecological Responses to Climatic Variability on Reclaimed and Unmined Lands Using Enhanced Vegetation Index. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061100

AMA Style

Fan X, Song Y, Zhu C, Balzter H, Bai Z. Estimating Ecological Responses to Climatic Variability on Reclaimed and Unmined Lands Using Enhanced Vegetation Index. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(6):1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fan, Xiang, Yongze Song, Chuxin Zhu, Heiko Balzter, and Zhongke Bai. 2021. "Estimating Ecological Responses to Climatic Variability on Reclaimed and Unmined Lands Using Enhanced Vegetation Index" Remote Sensing 13, no. 6: 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061100

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