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Article

Geodetic-Gravimetric Monitoring of Mountain Uplift and Hydrological Variations at Zugspitze and Wank Mountains (Bavarian Alps, Germany)

1
Institute of Geodesy, Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 50, 30167 Hannover, Germany
2
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Alfons-Goppel Str. 11, 80539 Munich, Germany
3
Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, Zugspitze 5, 82475 Zugspitze, Germany
4
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roland Pail and George Vergos
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050918
Received: 7 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodesy for Gravity and Height Systems)
In 2004, first absolute gravity (AG) measurements were performed on the top of Mt. Zugspitze (2 sites) and at the foot (1 site) and top (1 site) of Mt. Wank. Mt. Wank (summit height 1780 m) and Mt. Zugspitze (2960 m) are about 15 km apart from each other and belong geologically to different parts of the Northern Limestone Alps. Bridging a time span of 15 years, the deduced gravity variations for Zugspitze are in the order of −0.30 μm/s2 with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 μm/s2. The Wank stations (foot and top) show no significant gravity variation. The vertical stability of Wank summit is also confirmed by results of continuous GNSS recordings. Because an Alpine mountain uplift of 1 or 2 mm/yr cannot explain the obtained gravity decline at Zugspitze, the dominating geophysical contributions are assumed to be due to the diminishing glaciers in the vicinity. The modelled gravity trend caused by glacier retreat between epochs 1999 and 2018 amounts to −0.012 μm/s2/yr at both Zugspitze AG sites. This explains more than half of the observed gravity decrease. Long-term variations on inter-annual and climate-relevant decadal scale will be investigated in the future using as supplement superconducting gravimetry (installed in 2019) and GNSS equipment (since 2018). View Full-Text
Keywords: absolute gravimetry; Mt. Zugspitze; Mt. Wank; gravity variation; superconducting gravimeter; GNSS; FG5 free-fall gravimeter; glacier retreat; Alpine mountain building absolute gravimetry; Mt. Zugspitze; Mt. Wank; gravity variation; superconducting gravimeter; GNSS; FG5 free-fall gravimeter; glacier retreat; Alpine mountain building
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MDPI and ACS Style

Timmen, L.; Gerlach, C.; Rehm, T.; Völksen, C.; Voigt, C. Geodetic-Gravimetric Monitoring of Mountain Uplift and Hydrological Variations at Zugspitze and Wank Mountains (Bavarian Alps, Germany). Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050918

AMA Style

Timmen L, Gerlach C, Rehm T, Völksen C, Voigt C. Geodetic-Gravimetric Monitoring of Mountain Uplift and Hydrological Variations at Zugspitze and Wank Mountains (Bavarian Alps, Germany). Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(5):918. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050918

Chicago/Turabian Style

Timmen, Ludger, Christian Gerlach, Till Rehm, Christof Völksen, and Christian Voigt. 2021. "Geodetic-Gravimetric Monitoring of Mountain Uplift and Hydrological Variations at Zugspitze and Wank Mountains (Bavarian Alps, Germany)" Remote Sensing 13, no. 5: 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050918

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