Pine nematode is a highly contagious disease that causes great damage to the world’s pine forest resources. Timely and accurate identification of pine nematode disease can help to control it. At present, there are few research on pine nematode disease identification, and it is difficult to accurately identify and locate nematode disease in a single pine by existing methods. This paper proposes a new network, SCANet (spatial-context-attention network), to identify pine nematode disease based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multi-spectral remote sensing images. In this method, a spatial information retention module is designed to reduce the loss of spatial information; it preserves the shallow features of pine nematode disease and expands the receptive field to enhance the extraction of deep features through a context information module. SCANet reached an overall accuracy of 79% and a precision and recall of around 0.86, and 0.91, respectively. In addition, 55 disease points among 59 known disease points were identified, which is better than other methods (DeepLab V3+, DenseNet, and HRNet). This paper presents a fast, precise, and practical method for identifying nematode disease and provides reliable technical support for the surveillance and control of pine wood nematode disease.
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