Modern forestry poses new challenges that space technologies can solve thanks to the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This study proposes a methodology to extract tree-level characteristics using UAVs in a spatially distributed area of pine trees on a regular basis. Analysis included different vegetation indices estimated with a high-resolution orthomosaic. Statistically reliable results were found through a three-phase workflow consisting of image acquisition, canopy analysis, and validation with field measurements. Of the 117 trees in the field, 112 (95%) were detected by the algorithm, while height, area, and crown diameter were underestimated by 1.78 m, 7.58 m2
, and 1.21 m, respectively. Individual tree attributes obtained from the UAV, such as total height (H) and the crown diameter (CD), made it possible to generate good allometric equations to infer the basal diameter (BD) and diameter at breast height (DBH), with R2
of 0.76 and 0.79, respectively. Multispectral indices were useful as tree vigor parameters, although the normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) was highlighted as the best proxy to monitor the phytosanitary condition of the orchard. Spatial variation in individual tree productivity suggests the differential management of ramets. The consistency of the results allows for its application in the field, including the complementation of spectral information that can be generated; the increase in accuracy and efficiency poses a path to modern inventories. However, the limitation for its application in forests of more complex structures is identified; therefore, further research is recommended.
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