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A Study of Two Impactful Heavy Rainfall Events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains during Early 2020, Part I; Societal Impacts, Synoptic Overview, and Historical Context
Article

A Study of Two Impactful Heavy Rainfall Events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains during Early 2020, Part II; Regional Overview, Rainfall Evolution, and Satellite QPE Utility

1
Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804, USA
2
ESSIC Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth System Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
3
NOAA-NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research, College Park, MD 20740, USA
4
Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
5
NOAA/NCEP/Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD 20740, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christopher Kidd and Lisa Milani
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(13), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132500
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 26 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Precipitation at the Mid- to High-Latitudes)
Two heavy rainfall events occurring in early 2020 brought flooding, flash flooding, strong winds, and tornadoes to the southern Appalachian Mountains. Part I of the study examined large-scale atmospheric contributions to the atmospheric river-influenced events and subsequent societal impacts. Contrary to expectations based on previous work in this region, the event having a lower event accumulation and shorter duration resulted in a greater number of triggered landslides and prolonged downstream flooding outside of the mountains. One purpose of this study (Part II) is to examine the local atmospheric conditions contributing to the rather unusual surface response to the shorter duration heavy rainfall event of 12–13 April 2020. A second purpose of this study is to investigate the utility of several spaced-based QPE and vertical atmospheric profile methods in illuminating some of the atmospheric conditions unique to the April event. The embedded mesoscale convective elements in the warm sector of the April event were larger and of longer duration than of the other event in February 2020, leading to sustained periods of convective rain rates. The environment of the April event was convectively unstable, and the resulting available potential energy was sustained by relatively dry airstreams at the 700 hPa level, continuously overriding the moist air stream at low levels attributed to an atmospheric river. View Full-Text
Keywords: embedded mesoscale precipitation; extreme rainfall; landslides; southern Appalachian Mountains embedded mesoscale precipitation; extreme rainfall; landslides; southern Appalachian Mountains
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, D.; Arulraj, M.; Ferraro, R.; Grassotti, C.; Kuligowski, B.; Liu, S.; Petkovic, V.; Wu, S.; Xie, P. A Study of Two Impactful Heavy Rainfall Events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains during Early 2020, Part II; Regional Overview, Rainfall Evolution, and Satellite QPE Utility. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2500. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132500

AMA Style

Miller D, Arulraj M, Ferraro R, Grassotti C, Kuligowski B, Liu S, Petkovic V, Wu S, Xie P. A Study of Two Impactful Heavy Rainfall Events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains during Early 2020, Part II; Regional Overview, Rainfall Evolution, and Satellite QPE Utility. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(13):2500. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132500

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miller, Douglas, Malarvizhi Arulraj, Ralph Ferraro, Christopher Grassotti, Bob Kuligowski, Shuyan Liu, Veljko Petkovic, Shaorong Wu, and Pingping Xie. 2021. "A Study of Two Impactful Heavy Rainfall Events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains during Early 2020, Part II; Regional Overview, Rainfall Evolution, and Satellite QPE Utility" Remote Sensing 13, no. 13: 2500. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132500

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