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Article

Sub-Daily Natural CO2 Flux Simulation Based on Satellite Data: Diurnal and Seasonal Pattern Comparisons to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions in the Greater Tokyo Area

1
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568, Japan
2
Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 7 Hitsujigaoka, Toyohira, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062-8516, Japan
3
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan
4
Japan Weather Association, 3-1-1 Higashi Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-6055, Japan
5
Earth Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pradeep Wagle
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112037
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 16 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
During the last decade, advances in the remote sensing of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite-1 (GOSAT-1), GOSAT-2, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) have produced finer-resolution atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) datasets. These data are applicable for a top-down approach towards the verification of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from megacities and updating of the inventory. However, great uncertainties regarding natural CO2 flux estimates remain when back-casting CO2 emissions from concentration data, making accurate disaggregation of urban CO2 sources difficult. For this study, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land products, meso-scale meteorological data, SoilGrids250 m soil profile data, and sub-daily soil moisture datasets to calculate hourly photosynthetic CO2 uptake and biogenic CO2 emissions with 500 m resolution for the Kantō Plain, Japan, at the center of which is the Tokyo metropolis. Our hourly integrated modeling results obtained for the period 2010–2018 suggest that, collectively, the vegetated land within the Greater Tokyo Area served as a daytime carbon sink year-round, where the hourly integrated net atmospheric CO2 removal was up to 14.15 ± 4.24% of hourly integrated anthropogenic emissions in winter and up to 55.42 ± 10.39% in summer. At night, plants and soil in the Greater Tokyo Area were natural carbon sources, with hourly integrated biogenic CO2 emissions equivalent to 2.27 ± 0.11%–4.97 ± 1.17% of the anthropogenic emissions in winter and 13.71 ± 2.44%–23.62 ± 3.13% in summer. Between January and July, the hourly integrated biogenic CO2 emissions of the Greater Tokyo Area increased sixfold, whereas the amplitude of the midday hourly integrated photosynthetic CO2 uptake was enhanced by nearly five times and could offset up to 79.04 ± 12.31% of the hourly integrated anthropogenic CO2 emissions in summer. The gridded hourly photosynthetic CO2 uptake and biogenic respiration estimates not only provide reference data for the estimation of total natural CO2 removal in our study area, but also supply prior input values for the disaggregation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and biogenic CO2 fluxes when applying top-down approaches to update the megacity’s CO2 emissions inventory. The latter contribution allows unprecedented amounts of GOSAT and ground measurement data regarding CO2 concentration to be analyzed in inverse modeling of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from Tokyo and the Kantō Plain. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropogenic CO2 emissions; biogenic CO2 flux; diurnal variation; gross primary production; ecosystem respiration; net ecosystem exchange; megacity; top-down approach anthropogenic CO2 emissions; biogenic CO2 flux; diurnal variation; gross primary production; ecosystem respiration; net ecosystem exchange; megacity; top-down approach
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Q.; Imasu, R.; Arai, Y.; Ito, S.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Kondo, H.; Xiao, J. Sub-Daily Natural CO2 Flux Simulation Based on Satellite Data: Diurnal and Seasonal Pattern Comparisons to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions in the Greater Tokyo Area. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112037

AMA Style

Wang Q, Imasu R, Arai Y, Ito S, Mizoguchi Y, Kondo H, Xiao J. Sub-Daily Natural CO2 Flux Simulation Based on Satellite Data: Diurnal and Seasonal Pattern Comparisons to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions in the Greater Tokyo Area. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(11):2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Qiao, Ryoichi Imasu, Yutaka Arai, Satoshi Ito, Yasuko Mizoguchi, Hiroaki Kondo, and Jingfeng Xiao. 2021. "Sub-Daily Natural CO2 Flux Simulation Based on Satellite Data: Diurnal and Seasonal Pattern Comparisons to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions in the Greater Tokyo Area" Remote Sensing 13, no. 11: 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112037

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