Polynyas are an important factor in the Antarctic and Arctic climate, and their changes are related to the ecosystems in the polar regions. The phenomenon of polynyas is influenced by the combination of inherent persistence and dynamic factors. The dynamics of polynyas are greatly affected by temporal dynamical factors, and it is difficult to objectively reflect the internal characteristics of their formation. Separating the two factors effectively is necessary in order to explore their essence. The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave sensor has been making observations of Antarctica for more than 20 years, but it is difficult for existing current sea ice concentration (SIC) products to objectively reflect how the inherent persistence factors affect the formation of polynyas. In this paper, we proposed a long-term multiple spatial smoothing method to remove the influence of dynamic factors and obtain stable annual SIC products. A halo located on the border of areas of low and high ice concentration around the Antarctic coast, which has a strong similarity with the local seabed in outline, was found using the spatially smoothed SIC products and seabed. The relationship of the polynya location to the wind and topography is a long-understood relationship; here, we quantify that where there is an abrupt slope and wind transitions, new polynyas are best generated. A combination of image expansion and threshold segmentation was used to extract the extent of sea ice and coastal polynyas. The adjusted record of changes in the extent of coastal polynyas and sea ice in the Southern Ocean indicate that there is a negative correlation between them.
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