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Open AccessArticle

Multi-Sensor Analysis of a Weak and Long-Lasting Volcanic Plume Emission

1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, Piazza Roma 2, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale, CNR-IMAA, 85050 Tito Scalo, Italy
3
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Nazionale Terremoti, via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Rome, Italy
4
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Fisica—Università degli studi Napoli “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(23), 3866; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233866
Received: 20 September 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ground Based Imaging of Active Volcanic Phenomena)
Volcanic emissions are a well-known hazard that can have serious impacts on local populations and aviation operations. Whereas several remote sensing observations detect high-intensity explosive eruptions, few studies focus on low intensity and long-lasting volcanic emissions. In this work, we have managed to fully characterize those events by analyzing the volcanic plume produced on the last day of the 2018 Christmas eruption at Mt. Etna, in Italy. We combined data from a visible calibrated camera, a multi-wavelength elastic/Raman Lidar system, from SEVIRI (EUMETSAT-MSG) and MODIS (NASA-Terra/Aqua) satellites and, for the first time, data from an automatic sun-photometer of the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). Results show that the volcanic plume height, ranging between 4.5 and 6 km at the source, decreased by about 0.5 km after 25 km. Moreover, the volcanic plume was detectable by the satellites up to a distance of about 400 km and contained very fine particles with a mean effective radius of about 7 µm. In some time intervals, volcanic ash mass concentration values were around the aviation safety thresholds of 2 × 10−3 g m−3. Of note, Lidar observations show two main stratifications of about 0.25 km, which were not observed at the volcanic source. The presence of the double stratification could have important implications on satellite retrievals, which usually consider only one plume layer. This work gives new details on the main features of volcanic plumes produced during low intensity and long-lasting volcanic plume emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: volcanic aerosol; visible calibrated camera; Lidar; satellite; photometer data; Etna volcanic aerosol; visible calibrated camera; Lidar; satellite; photometer data; Etna
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scollo, S.; Boselli, A.; Corradini, S.; Leto, G.; Guerrieri, L.; Merucci, L.; Prestifilippo, M.; Sanchez, R.Z.; Sannino, A.; Stelitano, D. Multi-Sensor Analysis of a Weak and Long-Lasting Volcanic Plume Emission. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3866. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233866

AMA Style

Scollo S, Boselli A, Corradini S, Leto G, Guerrieri L, Merucci L, Prestifilippo M, Sanchez RZ, Sannino A, Stelitano D. Multi-Sensor Analysis of a Weak and Long-Lasting Volcanic Plume Emission. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(23):3866. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233866

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scollo, Simona; Boselli, Antonella; Corradini, Stefano; Leto, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Merucci, Luca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Sanchez, Ricardo Z.; Sannino, Alessia; Stelitano, Dario. 2020. "Multi-Sensor Analysis of a Weak and Long-Lasting Volcanic Plume Emission" Remote Sens. 12, no. 23: 3866. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233866

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