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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Surface Displacement and Groundwater Level Change and Its Hydrogeological Implications in an Alluvial Fan: Case Study of the Choshui River, Taiwan

1
National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, Taipei 23143, Taiwan
2
Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3
Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(20), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203315
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
Balancing the demand of groundwater resources and the mitigation of land subsidence is particularly important, yet challenging, in populated alluvial fan areas. In this study, we combine multiple monitoring data derived from Multi-Temporal InSAR (MTI), GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), precise leveling, groundwater level, and compaction monitoring wells, in order to analyze the relationship between surface displacement and groundwater level change within the alluvial fan of the Choshui River in Taiwan. Our combined time-series analyses suggest, in a yearly time scale, that groundwater level increases with the vertical surface displacement when the effect of pore water pressure dominates. Conversely, this relationship is negative when the effect of water-mass loading predominates over pore water pressure. However, the correlation between the vertical surface displacement and the groundwater level change is consistently positive over the time scale of two decades. It is interpreted that the alluvial fan sequence in the subsurface is not fully elastic, and compaction is greater than rebound in this process. These findings were not well reported and discussed by previous studies because of insufficient monitoring data and analyses. Understanding the combined effect of groundwater level change and vertical surface displacement is very helpful for management of land subsidence and usage of groundwater resources. The spatial and temporal integration of multi-sensors can be applied to overcome the limitations associated with the single technique and provides further insights into land surface changes, particularly in highly populated alluvial fan areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-temporal InSAR technique; GNSS; precise leveling; alluvial fan; vertical surface displacement; groundwater level change multi-temporal InSAR technique; GNSS; precise leveling; alluvial fan; vertical surface displacement; groundwater level change
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Lu, C.-Y.; Hu, J.-C.; Chan, Y.-C.; Su, Y.-F.; Chang, C.-H. The Relationship between Surface Displacement and Groundwater Level Change and Its Hydrogeological Implications in an Alluvial Fan: Case Study of the Choshui River, Taiwan. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3315.

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