As research on the use of satellites in combination with previous hydrological monitoring techniques increases, interest in the application of the machine-learning approach to the prediction of hydrological variables is growing. Ground-based measurements are often limited due to the difficulties in measuring spatiotemporal variations, especially in ungauged areas. In addition, there are no existing satellites capable of measuring total discharge directly. In this study, Artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning approaches are examined for the prediction of 0.25° total discharge data over the Korean Peninsula using the data fusion of multi-satellites, reanalysis data, and ground-based observations. Terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, precipitation of the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM), and soil moisture storage and average temperature of the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) models are used as ANN model input data. The results demonstrate the relatively good performance of the ANN approach for predicting the total discharge in terms of the correlation coefficient (r
= 0.65–0.95), maximum absolute error (MAE = 13.28–20.35 mm/month), root mean square error (RMSE = 22.56–34.77 mm/month), and Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE = 0.42–0.90). The precipitation is identified as the most influential input parameter through a sensitivity analysis. Overall, the ANN-predicted total discharge shows similar spatial patterns to those from other methods, while GLDAS underestimates the total discharge with a smaller dynamic range than the other models. Thus, the potential of the ANN approach described herein shows promise for predicting the total discharge based on the data fusion of multi-satellites, reanalysis data, and ground-based observations.
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