Next Article in Journal
Fusion of Multi-Satellite Data and Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Total Discharge
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 Images for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Lake Chad, Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Global Wildfire Outlook Forecast with Neural Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Monitoring Water Quality of Valle de Bravo Reservoir, Mexico, Using Entire Lifespan of MERIS Data and Machine Learning Approaches
Open AccessArticle

Spectral and Radiometric Measurement Requirements for Inland, Coastal and Reef Waters

1
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Earth Observation Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany
2
CSIRO, Oceans & Atmosphere, GPO Box 1700, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(14), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142247
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Inland Waters and Their Catchments)
This paper studies the measurement requirements of spectral resolution and radiometric sensitivity to enable the quantitative determination of water constituents and benthic parameters for the majority of optically deep and optically shallow waters on Earth. The spectral and radiometric variability is investigated by simulating remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra of optically deep water for twelve inland water scenarios representing typical and extreme concentration ranges of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter and non-algal particles. For optically shallow waters, Rrs changes induced by variable water depth are simulated for fourteen bottom substrate types, from lakes to coastal waters and coral reefs. The required radiometric sensitivity is derived for the conditions that the spectral shape of Rrs should be resolvable with a quantization of 100 levels and that measurable reflection differences at at least one wavelength must occur at concentration changes in water constituents of 10% and depth differences of 20 cm. These simulations are also used to derive the optimal spectral resolution and the most sensitive wavelengths. Finally, the Rrs spectra and their changes are converted to radiances and radiance differences in order to derive sensor (noise-equivalent radiance) and measurement requirements (signal-to-noise ratio) at the water surface and at the top of the atmosphere for a range of solar zenith angles. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; inland water; phytoplankton; colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); non-algal particles; shallow water; coral reef; reflectance; spectral resolution; radiometric sensitivity remote sensing; inland water; phytoplankton; colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); non-algal particles; shallow water; coral reef; reflectance; spectral resolution; radiometric sensitivity
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gege, P.; Dekker, A.G. Spectral and Radiometric Measurement Requirements for Inland, Coastal and Reef Waters. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2247.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop