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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Evidence of Swell Signatures in Airborne L5/E5a GNSS-Reflectometry

CommSensLab—UPC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, and IEEC/CTE-UPC, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(11), 1759;
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 24 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of GNSS Reflectometry for Earth Observation)
As compared to GPS L1C/A signals, L5/E5a Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) improves the spatial resolution due to the narrower auto-correlation function. Furthermore, the larger transmitted power (+3 dB), and correlation gain (+10 dB) allow the reception of weaker reflected signals. If directive antennas are used, very short incoherent integration times are enough to achieve good signal-to-noise ratios, allowing the reception of multiple specular reflection points without the blurring induced by long incoherent integration times. This study presents for the first time experimental evidence of the wind and swell waves signatures in the GNSS-R waveforms, and it performs a statistical analysis, a time-domain analysis, and a frequency-domain analysis for a unique data set of waveforms collected by the UPC MIR instrument during a series of flights over the Bass Strait, Australia. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS-R; waveform; GPS; Galileo; sea; swell; waves GNSS-R; waveform; GPS; Galileo; sea; swell; waves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Munoz-Martin, J.F.; Onrubia, R.; Pascual, D.; Park, H.; Camps, A.; Rüdiger, C.; Walker, J.; Monerris, A. Experimental Evidence of Swell Signatures in Airborne L5/E5a GNSS-Reflectometry. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1759.

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