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Open AccessArticle

An Iterative ICA-Based Reconstruction Method to Produce Consistent Time-Variable Total Water Storage Fields Using GRACE and Swarm Satellite Data

1
Geodesy and Earth Observation Group, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Rendburggade 14, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
2
School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103AT, UK
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Institute of Physics and Meteorology (IPM), University of Hohenheim, D70593 Stuttgart, Germany
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Computational Science Lab (CSL), University of Hohenheim, D70593 Stuttgart, Germany
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Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 251 65 Ondrejov, Czech Republic
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NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Street, Central Buliding of the College of Engineering, 1439957131 Tehran, Iran
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Division of Geodetic Science, School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Institute of Geodesy & Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101639
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GRACE Satellite Gravimetry for Geosciences)
Observing global terrestrial water storage changes (TWSCs) from (inter-)seasonal to (multi-)decade time-scales is very important to understand the Earth as a system under natural and anthropogenic climate change. The primary goal of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission (2002–2017) and its follow-on mission (GRACE-FO, 2018–onward) is to provide time-variable gravity fields, which can be converted to TWSCs with 300 km spatial resolution; however, the one year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO represents a critical discontinuity, which cannot be replaced by alternative data or model with the same quality. To fill this gap, we applied time-variable gravity fields (2013–onward) from the Swarm Earth explorer mission with low spatial resolution of 1500 km. A novel iterative reconstruction approach was formulated based on the independent component analysis (ICA) that combines the GRACE and Swarm fields. The reconstructed TWSC fields of 2003–2018 were compared with a commonly applied reconstruction technique and GRACE-FO TWSC fields, whose results indicate a considerable noise reduction and long-term consistency improvement of the iterative ICA reconstruction technique. They were applied to evaluate trends and seasonal mass changes (of 2003–2018) within the world’s 33 largest river basins. View Full-Text
Keywords: GRACE; GRACE-FO; Swarm; independent component analysis (ICA); data reconstruction; trends of mass changes; world river basins; iterative ICA reconstruction GRACE; GRACE-FO; Swarm; independent component analysis (ICA); data reconstruction; trends of mass changes; world river basins; iterative ICA reconstruction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Forootan, E.; Schumacher, M.; Mehrnegar, N.; Bezděk, A.; Talpe, M.J.; Farzaneh, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Y.; Shum, C.K. An Iterative ICA-Based Reconstruction Method to Produce Consistent Time-Variable Total Water Storage Fields Using GRACE and Swarm Satellite Data. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1639.

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