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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(8), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11080905

Design, Calibration, and Evaluation of a Backpack Indoor Mobile Mapping System

1
Department of Earth Observation Science, Faculty ITC, University of Twente, 7514 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Independent researcher, 46397 Bocholt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Mapping Technologies)
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Abstract

Indoor mobile mapping systems are important for a wide range of applications starting from disaster management to straightforward indoor navigation. This paper presents the design and performance of a low-cost backpack indoor mobile mapping system (ITC-IMMS) that utilizes a combination of laser range-finders (LRFs) to fully recover the 3D building model based on a feature-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm. Specifically, we use robust planar features. These are advantageous, because oftentimes the final representation of the indoor environment is wanted in a planar form, and oftentimes the walls in an indoor environment physically have planar shapes. In order to understand the potential accuracy of our indoor models and to assess the system’s ability to capture the geometry of indoor environments, we develop novel evaluation techniques. In contrast to the state-of-the-art evaluation methods that rely on ground truth data, our evaluation methods can check the internal consistency of the reconstructed map in the absence of any ground truth data. Additionally, the external consistency can be verified with the often available as-planned state map of the building. The results demonstrate that our backpack system can capture the geometry of the test areas with angle errors typically below 1.5° and errors in wall thickness around 1 cm. An optimal configuration for the sensors is determined through a set of experiments that makes use of the developed evaluation techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: IMMS; indoor mapping; MLS; mobile laser scanning; SLAM; point clouds; 2D laser scanner; 2D laser range-finder; LiDAR; LRF; sensors configurations IMMS; indoor mapping; MLS; mobile laser scanning; SLAM; point clouds; 2D laser scanner; 2D laser range-finder; LiDAR; LRF; sensors configurations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karam, S.; Vosselman, G.; Peter, M.; Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Lehtola, V. Design, Calibration, and Evaluation of a Backpack Indoor Mobile Mapping System. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 905.

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