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Open AccessArticle

Earth and Rock-Filled Dam Monitoring by High-Resolution X-Band Interferometry: Gongming Dam Case Study

1
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Research Centre, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Department of Geodesy, Section of Remote Sensing, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
3
Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
4
Shenzhen Water Science and Technology development company, Baoan Nan road, Shenzhen 518000, China
5
School of Water Resources and Hydropower, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030246
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
Middle-sized earth- and rock-filled dams with clay cores continue to settle by approximately 0.5–1.5% of their height for approximately 1–3 years after their construction phase. This paper investigates the use of high-resolution spaceborne Synthetic aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry to monitor this settlement process, with the case of the Gongming dam in China. The varieties of slope foreshortening and stretching in the radar coordinates are attributed to the radar’s local incidence angle and the dam’s slope heading, which are analysed in detail. Focusing on the embankment slope settlement analysis, the equations for calculating foreshortening and the line-of-sight deformation decomposition are derived in detail for the adjustment and data fusing. The scattering characteristics of different materials on the dam surface are analysed, including the grass slope, concrete slope, top road (crest), top wall, step, and ditch. According to the analysis of the precipitation data from a local meteorological station, the coherence losses on the slopes are mainly caused by surface moisture. Both the TerraSAR-X Spotlight (TSX-SL) data and the COSMO-SkyMed Strip Mode (CSK-SM) data are analysed by the stacking method to assess the slopes’ deformations. The TSX-SL data results show the highest rate of settlement as 2 cm/yr on the top of the dam slope, consistent with the clay core shrinking process. The CSK-SM data show a similar trend in the lower part of the dam slope but underestimate the deformation in the upper part of the slope. View Full-Text
Keywords: spotlight; earth- and rock-fill dam; InSAR; correlation; TerraSAR-X; hydraulic structural design spotlight; earth- and rock-fill dam; InSAR; correlation; TerraSAR-X; hydraulic structural design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, T.; Motagh, M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, W.; Gong, C.; Xiong, X.; He, J.; Chen, L.; Liu, J. Earth and Rock-Filled Dam Monitoring by High-Resolution X-Band Interferometry: Gongming Dam Case Study. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 246.

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