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Open AccessArticle

Ocean Response to Successive Typhoons Sarika and Haima (2016) Based on Data Acquired via Multiple Satellites and Moored Array

1
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
2
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
3
Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
4
Key Laboratory of Mesoscale Severe Weather/MOE and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
6
Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202360
Received: 25 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclones Remote Sensing and Data Assimilation)
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are natural disasters for coastal regions. TCs with maximum wind speeds higher than 32.7 m/s in the north-western Pacific are referred to as typhoons. Typhoons Sarika and Haima successively passed our moored observation array in the northern South China Sea in 2016. Based on the satellite data, the winds (clouds and rainfall) biased to the right (left) sides of the typhoon tracks. Sarika and Haima cooled the sea surface ~4 and ~2 °C and increased the salinity ~1.2 and ~0.6 psu, respectively. The maximum sea surface cooling occurred nearly one day after the two typhoons. Station 2 (S2) was on left side of Sarika’s track and right side of Haima’s track, which is studied because its data was complete. Strong near-inertial currents from the ocean surface toward the bottom were generated at S2, with a maximum mixed-layer speed of ~80 cm/s. The current spectrum also shows weak signal at twice the inertial frequency (2f). Sarika deepened the mixed layer, cooled the sea surface, but warmed the subsurface by ~1 °C. Haima subsequently pushed the subsurface warming anomaly into deeper ocean, causing a temperature increase of ~1.8 °C therein. Sarika and Haima successively increased the heat content anomaly upper than 160 m at S2 to ~50 and ~100 m°C, respectively. Model simulation of the two typhoons shows that mixing and horizontal advection caused surface ocean cooling, mixing and downwelling caused subsurface warming, while downwelling warmed the deeper ocean. It indicates that Sarika and Haima sequentially modulated warm water into deeper ocean and influenced internal ocean heat budget. Upper ocean salinity response was similar to temperature, except that rainfall refreshed sea surface and caused a successive salinity decrease of ~0.03 and ~0.1 psu during the two typhoons, changing the positive subsurface salinity anomaly to negative View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean response; tropical cyclone; typhoon; temperature anomaly; salinity anomaly; wind speed; sea surface; mixed layer; South China Sea ocean response; tropical cyclone; typhoon; temperature anomaly; salinity anomaly; wind speed; sea surface; mixed layer; South China Sea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Liu, X.; Wu, R.; Liu, F.; Yu, L.; Shang, X.; Qi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Song, X.; Xie, X.; Yang, C.; Tian, D.; Zhang, W. Ocean Response to Successive Typhoons Sarika and Haima (2016) Based on Data Acquired via Multiple Satellites and Moored Array. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2360.

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