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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11010102

Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Trends of Canopy Urban Heat Islands and Associated Drivers in China’s 32 Major Cities

Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, College of Geographic Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
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Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Heat Island Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

The urban heat island (UHI) effect, in which urbanized areas tend to have warmer conditions compared to their rural surroundings, has drawn increasing attention in recent years. Using ground-based and satellite remote sensing data, we present a method to quantify the spatial pattern and diurnal and seasonal variations in canopy layer heat islands (CLHIs) in China’s 32 major cities during 2009 and investigate their relationships with built-up intensity (BI), nighttime lights, vegetation activity, surface albedo, and surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII). The results show that both the annual daytime and nighttime CLHI intensities (CLHIIs) were positive ranging from 0.2 °C to 2.2 °C and from 0.3 °C to 2.4 °C for these major cities, respectively. Higher CLHIIs were observed in the night, especially for northern parts of China. Along urban–rural gradients, the CLHI effect had an exponential decay shape and differed greatly by season. The CLHII distribution correlated positively and significantly to BI and nighttime lights. Vegetation activity was negatively correlated with the CLHII and more strongly in summer. Surface albedo showed an extremely weak correlation with the CLHII. In addition, CLHII had a strong correlation with SUHII. The annual daytime SUHII was 1.2 ± 1.1 °C (mean ± standard deviation) with 0.40 °C (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.44 °C) of annual daytime CLHII. The annual nighttime SUHII was 2.0 ± 0.8 °C with 1.04 °C (0.99 to 1.09 °C) of annual nighttime CLHII. Our results suggest that, reducing built-up intensity and anthropogenic heat emissions and increasing urban vegetation provide a co-benefit of mitigating SUHI and CLHI effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban heat island; surface air temperature; land surface temperature; spatial variations; driving forces urban heat island; surface air temperature; land surface temperature; spatial variations; driving forces
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Li, L.; Zha, Y. Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Trends of Canopy Urban Heat Islands and Associated Drivers in China’s 32 Major Cities. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 102.

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