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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

GPS Time Series Analysis from Aboa the Finnish Antarctic Research Station

1
Department of Geodesy and Geodynamics, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
2
Geomorphology and glaciology, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 114 19 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121937
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Research with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS))
Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations have been logged at the Finnish Antarctic research station (Aboa) since February 2003. The station is located in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Almost 5000 daily observation files have been archived based on yearly scientific expeditions. These files have not been fully analysed until now. This study reports for the first time on the consistent and homogeneous data processing and analysis of the 15-year long time series. Daily coordinates are obtained using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing based on two approaches. The first approach is based on the Kalman filter and uses the RTKLIB open source library to produce daily solutions by unconventionally running the filter in the forward and backward direction. The second approach uses APPS web service and is based on GIPSY scientific processing engine. The two approaches show an excellent agreement with less than 3 mm rms error horizontally and 6 mm rms error vertically. The derived position time series is analysed in terms of trend, periodicity and noise characteristics. The noise of the time series was found to be power-law noise model with spectral index closer to flicker noise. In addition, several periodic signals were found at 5, 14, 183 and 362 days. Furthermore, most of the horizontal movement was found to be in the North direction at a rate of 11.23 ± 0.09 mm/y, whereas the rate in the East direction was estimated to be 1.46 ± 0.05 mm/y. Lastly, the 15-year long time series revealed a movement upwards at a rate of 0.79 ± 0.35 mm/y. Despite being an unattended station, Aboa provides one of the most continuous and longest GPS time series in Antarctica. Therefore, we believe that this research increases the awareness of local geophysical phenomena in a less reported area of the Antarctic continent. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS; Antarctica; time series; coordinates; velocity; trend; periodicity; noise; uncertainty GPS; Antarctica; time series; coordinates; velocity; trend; periodicity; noise; uncertainty
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andrei, C.-O.; Lahtinen, S.; Nordman, M.; Näränen, J.; Koivula, H.; Poutanen, M.; Hyyppä, J. GPS Time Series Analysis from Aboa the Finnish Antarctic Research Station. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1937.

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