Next Article in Journal
Deep Distillation Recursive Network for Remote Sensing Imagery Super-Resolution
Previous Article in Journal
Fast Atmospheric Correction Method for Hyperspectral Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Ship Detector Applying Principal Component Analysis to the Polarimetric Notch Filter
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111699

Detection, Localization and Classification of Multiple Mechanized Ocean Vessels over Continental-Shelf Scale Regions with Passive Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway
3
Christian Michelsen Research AS, Fantoftvegen 38, 5072 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Target Detection in Marine Environment)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6881 KB, uploaded 29 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Multiple mechanized ocean vessels, including both surface ships and submerged vehicles, can be simultaneously monitored over instantaneous continental-shelf scale regions >10,000 km 2 via passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing. A large-aperture densely-sampled coherent hydrophone array system is employed in the Norwegian Sea in Spring 2014 to provide directional sensing in 360 degree horizontal azimuth and to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ship-radiated underwater sound, which improves ship detection ranges by roughly two orders of magnitude over that of a single hydrophone. Here, 30 mechanized ocean vessels spanning ranges from nearby to over 150 km from the coherent hydrophone array, are detected, localized and classified. The vessels are comprised of 20 identified commercial ships and 10 unidentified vehicles present in 8 h/day of Passive Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (POAWRS) observation for two days. The underwater sounds from each of these ocean vessels received by the coherent hydrophone array are dominated by narrowband signals that are either constant frequency tonals or have frequencies that waver or oscillate slightly in time. The estimated bearing-time trajectory of a sequence of detections obtained from coherent beamforming are employed to determine the horizontal location of each vessel using the Moving Array Triangulation (MAT) technique. For commercial ships present in the region, the estimated horizontal positions obtained from passive acoustic sensing are verified by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the ship locations found in a historical Automatic Identification System (AIS) database. We provide time-frequency characterizations of the underwater sounds radiated from the commercial ships and the unidentified vessels. The time-frequency features along with the bearing-time trajectory of the detected signals are applied to simultaneously track and distinguish these vessels. View Full-Text
Keywords: passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing; multiple ships; ship noise; tonal; ship detection; localization; classification; beamforming; triangulation; hydrophone array; passive acoustics passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing; multiple ships; ship noise; tonal; ship detection; localization; classification; beamforming; triangulation; hydrophone array; passive acoustics
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, C.; Garcia, H.; Kaplan, A.; Schinault, M.; Handegard, N.O.; Godø, O.R.; Huang, W.; Ratilal, P. Detection, Localization and Classification of Multiple Mechanized Ocean Vessels over Continental-Shelf Scale Regions with Passive Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1699.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top