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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of an Improved Intermodal Transit Model Equipped with Feeder Bus and Railway Systems Using Metaheuristics Approaches

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 136-713 Seoul, Korea
2
Strategic Center for Energy and Sustainable Development, Semnan branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran
3
Center for transportation research (CTR), Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060537
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
One of the serious concerns in network design is creating an efficient and appropriate network capable of efficiently migrating the passenger’s mode of transportation from private to public. The main goal of this study is to present an improved model for combining the feeder bus network design system and the railway transit system while minimizing total cost. In this study, the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and the water cycle algorithm (WCA) were employed to optimize feeder bus and railway services. The case study and input data were based on a real transit network in Petaling Jaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Numerical results for the proposed model, including the optimal solution, statistical optimization results and the convergence rate, as well as comparisons are discussed in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: public transportation; transit network design; feeder bus; intermodal coordination; routing and scheduling; metaheuristic algorithms public transportation; transit network design; feeder bus; intermodal coordination; routing and scheduling; metaheuristic algorithms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almasi, M.H.; Sadollah, A.; Kang, S.; Karim, M.R. Optimization of an Improved Intermodal Transit Model Equipped with Feeder Bus and Railway Systems Using Metaheuristics Approaches. Sustainability 2016, 8, 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060537

AMA Style

Almasi MH, Sadollah A, Kang S, Karim MR. Optimization of an Improved Intermodal Transit Model Equipped with Feeder Bus and Railway Systems Using Metaheuristics Approaches. Sustainability. 2016; 8(6):537. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almasi, Mohammad H.; Sadollah, Ali; Kang, Seungmo; Karim, Mohamed R. 2016. "Optimization of an Improved Intermodal Transit Model Equipped with Feeder Bus and Railway Systems Using Metaheuristics Approaches" Sustainability 8, no. 6: 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060537

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