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Article

Responding to the Initial Challenge of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of International Responses and Impact in School and Higher Education

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Center for Higher Education (BZH), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
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Research Institute for Innovation & Technology in Education (UNIR iTED), Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), 26006 Logrono, Spain
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Faculty of Information and Audiovisual Media, University of Barcelona, 08014 Barcelona, Spain
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Distance Education Department, Anadolu University, Eskişehir 26470, Turkey
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Instructional Design, Ambedkar University Delhi, New Delhi 110015, India
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Academic Library, Université Paris Nanterre, 92000 Nanterre, France
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Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 41092 Seville, Spain
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College of Indigenous Futures, Education & the Arts, Charles Darwin University, Darwin 0909, Australia
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Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE), International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), OER Advocacy Committee, 22235 Lund, Sweden
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Computer Science, Korea National Open University, Seoul 03087, Korea
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College of Interdisciplinary Studies, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
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Wuse 2 Study Centre, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja 106104, Nigeria
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Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University (UK), Milton Keynes MK6 7AA, UK
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School of Education, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
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University Teaching Academy, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BG, UK
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Institute for the Future of Education, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
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Independent Consultant, E4innovation, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
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Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching (CILT), University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
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Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University, Melbourne 3177, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Changhyun Roh
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031876
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2022 / Accepted: 28 January 2022 / Published: 7 February 2022
This paper presents and analyses solutions where open education and open science were utilised to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education. The COVID-19 outbreak and associated lockdowns created huge challenges in school and higher education, demanding sudden responses which aimed to sustain pedagogical quality. Responses have varied from conservative to radically innovative. Universally, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted and shocked societies worldwide, and education systems were on the front line. The lockdowns largely stopped face-to-face and formal education in almost all countries, and in most cases, distance learning soon became the ‘new normal’. A central challenge concerned sustaining educational visions and ideals in such circumstances. To better understand the state of the art in the educational landscape, we collected case studies from 13 countries during the first year of the pandemic starting on 11 March 2020 (when the World Health Organization declared a pandemic). This paper presents summaries of the full country reports that were collected and describe lessons learned. Our overall aim was to identify good practices and recommendations from the collected case studies that can be taken forward in the future. We categorised the responses on the three generic educational levels (macro, meso and micro) and identified seven key aspects and trends that are valid for all or most countries: (1) formal education at a distance for first time; (2) similar approaches for formal education; (3) missing infrastructure and sharing open educational resources; (4) diverse teaching and learning methods and practices; (5) open education and access to open educational resources; (6) urgent need for professional development and training for teachers and (7) assessing and monitoring learning environments, teachers and students. Finally, we identified key recommendations on how open education and open science can benefit formal education in schools and universities in the future, namely, improved awareness of open educational practices, provision of ICT infrastructure, embracing and sustaining the practice of open access publications and OERs, capacity building for stakeholders and finally encouraging research and development in the area of open education and open science. We found significant evidence for the proposition that open education and open science can support both traditional face-to-face and distance learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: school education; higher education; distance education; online learning; open education; open science; COVID-19 pandemic; impact; educational innovation; international practices and case studies school education; higher education; distance education; online learning; open education; open science; COVID-19 pandemic; impact; educational innovation; international practices and case studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stracke, C.M.; Burgos, D.; Santos-Hermosa, G.; Bozkurt, A.; Sharma, R.C.; Swiatek Cassafieres, C.; dos Santos, A.I.; Mason, J.; Ossiannilsson, E.; Shon, J.G.; Wan, M.; Obiageli Agbu, J.-F.; Farrow, R.; Karakaya, Ö.; Nerantzi, C.; Ramírez-Montoya, M.S.; Conole, G.; Cox, G.; Truong, V. Responding to the Initial Challenge of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of International Responses and Impact in School and Higher Education. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1876. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031876

AMA Style

Stracke CM, Burgos D, Santos-Hermosa G, Bozkurt A, Sharma RC, Swiatek Cassafieres C, dos Santos AI, Mason J, Ossiannilsson E, Shon JG, Wan M, Obiageli Agbu J-F, Farrow R, Karakaya Ö, Nerantzi C, Ramírez-Montoya MS, Conole G, Cox G, Truong V. Responding to the Initial Challenge of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of International Responses and Impact in School and Higher Education. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1876. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031876

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stracke, Christian M., Daniel Burgos, Gema Santos-Hermosa, Aras Bozkurt, Ramesh Chander Sharma, Cécile Swiatek Cassafieres, Andreia Inamorato dos Santos, Jon Mason, Ebba Ossiannilsson, Jin Gon Shon, Marian Wan, Jane-Frances Obiageli Agbu, Robert Farrow, Özlem Karakaya, Chrissi Nerantzi, María Soledad Ramírez-Montoya, Grainne Conole, Glenda Cox, and Vi Truong. 2022. "Responding to the Initial Challenge of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of International Responses and Impact in School and Higher Education" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1876. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031876

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