Detection of the Seasonally Activated Rural Areas
2. Framing Seasonality
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Spatial and Temporal Aspect of the Research
3.2. Seasonality Coefficient Based on Satellite Images of Nighttime Lights (Scos)
- Preparation of monthly series of NTL for the territory of Serbia. Monthly cloud-free DNB composites passed stray-light corrections were used . The spatial resolution of the dataset was about 500 m, while NTL emission was expressed as radiance in nW/cm2/sr. Apart from numerous advantages, there were certain weaknesses related to the usage of satellite images of NTL related to blooming effect, saturation, impact of weather conditions, surface albedo, and other sources of noise . Tracking population activity was additionally affected by satellite recording time, i.e., about 1:30 a.m. Also, before the final usage, additional data preparation was necessary. In this case, preprocessing included removing negative values of radiance and interpolation of excluded pixels applying the nearest-neighbor interpolation method. After the observed distribution of radiance, the outliers were removed from the analysis. Although the first release was for several months in 2012, developed algorithms in the following years enabled additional refinements of VIIRS DNB nighttime light imagery, including stray-light correction procedure . To ensure the quality of used data and to avoid variability between years, average monthly NTL were calculated for a period of five years (2015–2019). The multi-year average should eliminate variability in the time series as a product of different events, natural as well as human-induced occurrences (weather conditions, fires, ephemeral light, etc.);
- Creation of a seasonality coefficient (Scos) as an indicator of area activation based on Sum of Lights (SOL). The SOL represents the sum of radiance for studied spatial units, i.e., settlements as well-selected tourist places. The seasonality coefficient for each month of the year (Scosm) was calculated as a ratio of SOL for that month (SOLm) and monthly average in the studied period (SOLaverage·m1-m12). The obtained values higher than one mean more emitted lights, i.e., an increase in ambient population compared to average conditions within a year. Exploring obtained Scosm values, the threshold of 1.25 was set up to single out settlements with the highest intra-annual variability, i.e., the largest number of months during the year when the emitted NTL are higher by 25% compared to average conditions. To show spatial patterns in seasonally activated rural areas, the obtained results are mapped;
- Case studies for selected tourist places. This kind of analysis was performed on the pixel level to get more detailed insight in spatial-temporal variability in activation for selected destinations. Additional indicator was created as the radiance ratio between the month with highest (SOLmmax) and lowest SOL (SOLmmin) within a year. This allows detection of areas within studied touristic destinations with the highest seasonal activation.
3.3. Seasonality Coefficient Based on Official Statistical Data (Scot)
3.4. Intertwining of the Seasonality Coefficients
4.1. Seasonality Coefficient Based on Nighttime Lights (Scos)
4.2. Seasonality Coefficient Based on Official Statistics (Scot)
4.3. Intertwining of the Seasonality Coefficients
4.4. Case Study of the Rural Areas Seasonal Activation Based on the Tourist Activity
- The proposed method is novel and it encourages the identification of the seasonal activation of rural areas with different purposes. We proposed a framework devised to detect and map seasonally activated rural areas.
- Despite limitations and shortcomings, NTL imagery is still one of the most widely used tools in quantitatively evaluating socioeconomic systems; also, from the correlation analysis, it can be assumed that the model works better for the specialized tourist areas. This relationship is stronger in mountain tourist areas during the winter, where there is a peak in touristic activity. It seems that the association between touristic activities and NTL, although evident, is not homogeneous in both spatial and temporal terms;
- According to the obtained results, the most seasonally activated rural areas in Serbia have been detected. They are represented by mountain, highly valorized touristic areas, such as Kopaonik Mt., Divčibare Mt., Stara planina Mt., as well as areas with high tourist potentials, like Zlatar Mt., Goč Mt., Golija Mt., etc.; spa centers; nature reserves—Uvac, Jerma, Pčinja; lakes—Zlatarsko jezero Lake and Vlasinsko jezero Lake; as well as some transit areas and areas with significant agricultural resources.
- The seasonality peak is registered during the winter season (for January and February), with a tendency of growing seasonal activation in the spring and summer periods (transit areas, Goč Mt., Tara Mt., Divčibare Mt., etc., lakes and spa centers).
- Only one destination, Zlatibor Mt., has developed diverse tourist offerings, which has enabled a balanced tourist fluctuation on an annual basis and thus without pronounced seasonal peaks.
- The results of this research confirmed the assumption that NTL could be used as an accurate and significant proxy for investigation of socio-economic processes and related phenomena.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Touristic Areas (Destination)||I||II||III||IV||V||VI||VII||VIII||IX||X||XI||XII|
|Touristic Areas (Destination)||I||II||III||IV||V||VI||VII||VIII||IX||X||XI||XII|
|Stara planina Mt.||1.76||1.51||1.19||0.86||0.85||0.78||0.61||0.71||0.71||0.86||1.05||1.12|
|Ribarska banja Spa||2.00||1.07||0.84||0.87||0.82||0.76||0.74||0.83||0.87||0.86||1.15||1.17|
|Prolom banja Spa||1.26||0.68||0.86||0.98||0.95||0.97||1.02||1.10||1.06||1.0||1.13||1.0|
|Lukovska banja Spa||1.42||1.03||0.84||0.82||0.98||0.85||0.99||0.91||0.97||0.96||1.09||1.13|
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Drobnjaković, M.; Panić, M.; Stanojević, G.; Doljak, D.; Kokotović Kanazir, V. Detection of the Seasonally Activated Rural Areas. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031604
Drobnjaković M, Panić M, Stanojević G, Doljak D, Kokotović Kanazir V. Detection of the Seasonally Activated Rural Areas. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031604Chicago/Turabian Style
Drobnjaković, Marija, Milena Panić, Gorica Stanojević, Dejan Doljak, and Vlasta Kokotović Kanazir. 2022. "Detection of the Seasonally Activated Rural Areas" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031604