Next Article in Journal
Response of Castor Seedling Roots to Combined Pollution of Cd and Zn in Soils
Previous Article in Journal
Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications for Solar Stills Efficiency Assessment: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of the Seasonally Activated Rural Areas
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Factors That Influence Sustainable Selection and Reselection Intentions Regarding Soluble/Instant Coffee—The Case of Serbian Consumers

Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” SASA, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Institute of Sport Tourism and Service, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Faculty of Hotel Management and Tourism, University of Kragujevac, 36210 Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia
Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Singidunum University, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Business Studies, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Department of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 614990 Perm, Russia
Academy of Applied Technical Studies, College of Applied Engineering Sciences, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10701;
Original submission received: 25 June 2022 / Resubmission received: 4 August 2022 / Revised: 21 August 2022 / Accepted: 24 August 2022 / Published: 28 August 2022


Soluble or instant espresso coffee in capsules with added values is a product that is increasingly recognized as a healthy lifestyle habit, which often goes together with the expansion of spa centers and spa hotels. In addition to the theoretical and empirical examination of sustainable drinking habits regarding different types of instant espresso coffee in Serbia, the aim was to define, by applying the theory of planned behavior, the relationship between certain factors that influence instant espresso coffee beverage reselection. The research model was developed using a sample of 1385 soluble/instant espresso coffee consumers. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the conceptual model and research hypotheses. The results indicate a statistically significant influence of certain predictors on the intention of consumers to rechoose soluble/instant coffee. One exception is perceived behavioral control, where statistical significance exceeds the allowed values, which indicate that the offer of functional soluble/instant espresso solutions should be extended outside high-quality service hotels and spa centers to be available to all consumers with healthy lifestyle habits. Defining the factors that influence instant espresso coffee reselection can help to understand influences on certain consumer behaviors and improve sustainability on the market.

1. Introduction

Coffee, as a global value chain, is undergoing many transformations in its pursuit of sustainability [1]. As a beverage it is consumed worldwide; around nine million tons of green coffee beans are registered as exported worldwide [2]. In many countries it is the most important export product. Statistics say that one and a half billion cups of coffee are consumed every day [3]. Numerous studies have proven that coffee is a part of world culture, having been on the market for centuries, and rare is the country where its use is declining [4]. New types of coffee and coffee products with functional properties are appearing on the market. The sustainability of coffee consumption habits and culture has been proven by numerous studies [5]. In recent years, special value-added coffee, functional coffee beverages and food products have been increasingly used [6]. These are mostly organic coffee beans with pre-treatments, followed by recovery procedures and value-added products (natural antioxidants, vitamins, enzymes, cellulose, starch, lipids, proteins and pigments) [7]. Soluble/instant espresso coffee types hold quite high prices on the market, and are mostly consumed in spa centers and hotels [8]. Understanding consumer behavior is essential in order to adapt to the accelerated growth of the coffee and coffee products market. Furthermore, from the point of view of consumer psychology, the discovery of the intention to choose the coffee that is consumed will certainly contribute to understanding the fact as to whether the habit of consuming this centuries-old drink has reached the level of a sustainable habit. The theory of planned behavior is most often used to investigate consumer intentions. Planned behavior theory (TPB) is an extended version of the theory of reasonable action (TRA), presented by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975 [9,10]. TRA describes measures of attitudes and socio-normative perceptions of specific behavior that lead to the intention to perform behavior [11]. Given the current topic and the growing consumption and popularity of coffee in Serbia, the authorstried to identify the main predictors that affect intention and choice regarding soluble/instant espresso coffee. The aim of the research was to determine which of the predictors has a correlation and a positive attitude towards the intention, final choice and reselection when consuming soluble/instant espresso coffee.
The research was conducted in the field in seven districts of Serbia, in their capitals, on a total sample of 1385 soluble/instant espresso coffee consumers. The research is of great social importance, because if we start from the fact that Serbia is much smaller than other countries but the consumption of instant espresso coffee with added values is increasing, it is possible to use the data to determine the actual consumption of coffee and Serbia’s position in the import coffee market in the region. It is then possible to expand the research to the entire region, and to establish the future consumption of instant espresso coffee and economic development in relation to the research data. All cafeterias operated as a type of “takeaway coffee” service during the COVID-19 pandemic, and during the closure of facilities, while soluble espresso capsules were available to every consumer in selected market retail outlets. In addition to its economic significance, this research will contribute to a better understanding of the habits of people who consume coffee, as well as other social and psychological factors in customers. The production of organic coffee capsules and coffee with sustainable packaging, as well as those that contribute to health and sustainable development, is a form of circular economy. Accordingly, creating habits for the use of any of the given types of coffee, as is the case with instant espresso coffee, is one of the links in this circular stage of sustainable development. The research may have a wider significance in the future, covering most respondents, the region, but also research on the frequency of use of other types of coffee, placing special emphasis on functional coffee in instant form. The importance of research is reflected in the perception of facts and the adoption of final definitions with regard to the psychological aspect, related to the creation of sustainable habits in consumers, because coffee is certainly a specific product of the world’s sustainable culture. Coffee is certainly, in all its forms, a part of the system that creates sustainable habits among consumers, but also by studying the use of certain types of coffee, the situation on the market can be monitored. The team will have a continuous cycle of monitoring the consumption of all types of coffee, and thus predict which will disappear from the market, and the period when special forms of coffee, such as functional, which contributes to all kinds of sustainable development, will be more in use. For now, in Serbian hotels, restaurants and spa centers, instant espresso coffee with added values is in the forefront as a self-service solution. The research can be repeated at certain time intervals, and in this way we can see in which period this type of coffee is used more, and when it stays on the market, contributing to the economy, and with similar research, it will be possible to slowly change forms and improve the packaging of soluble/instant espresso coffee. All that is mentioned above may contribute not only to the continuity of sustainable habits, but also to sustainable development.

2. Literature Review

The coffee plant (lat. Coffea) is a genus of evergreen shrubs or low trees and includes about 40 species that grow in pleotropic areas, mostly in Africa [12]. The global coffee market reached a value of USD 12.1 billion in 2020. Europe is followed by the Asia-Pacific region, North America, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. In 2020, people drank an average of 0.1 cups of instant coffee per capita per day in the United States [8]. Europe is the largest consumer of instant coffee in the world with a market share of 37%, followed by China (12%) and the United States (11%). As of July 2020, instant coffee deliveries accounted for 9.1% of all coffee delivered worldwide—an increase of 1% compared to 2019 (ICO’s Statistics). In 2020, an estimated 5.22 million people in the United Kingdom used instant coffee four times a day or more, [13]. However, in 2020, there is a significant increase in the consumption of instant coffee in capsules because of the circumstances of the pandemic, which due to the changed requirements of tourists, has become an indispensable service in rooms and apartments of accommodation units of higher categories [14,15].

2.1. Soluble/Instant Espresso Coffee Consumption Habit as a Healthy Lifestyle Choice

The habit of drinking coffee and its effect on health is a current topic, especially when it comes to soluble/instant coffees and their added values. Consuming coffee every day can be a way to a more sustainable and healthier lifestyle [16,17]. Coffee, in its different types and products, has been on the market for centuries [18]. Smell, taste and the social aspects of coffee consumption are some of the habits that create positive effects on many aspects of a person’s health [19]. Many studies talk about how coffee consumption triggers positive emotions such as pleasure, kindness, calmness and happiness [20]. Furthermore, some research confirms that there is no link between controlled coffee consumption and negative emotions [21]. A study conducted at Harvard using a sample of 50,000 women found that the risk of depression decreases as caffeinated coffee consumption increases [22]. Coffee beans contain antioxidants, which are important in health protection [23]. In addition, chlorogenic acid, which is a polyphenol abundant in coffee, reduces inflammatory processes or obesity [24,25]. Scientists claim that consuming one cup of coffee a day reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes [26,27]. Coffee provides a boost for athletes and has proven to be a stimulant in training, and is also as a stimulant in the development of science and improving human brain function [28]. There is a growing use of functional coffee, or coffee with added values such as minerals and vitamins that contribute to a healthier lifestyle [29,30]. Furthermore, much research highlights the use of organic coffee in biodegradable packaging that contributes to sustainable development [31]. A controlled daily intake of coffee can be a healthy way of life that does not have to be eliminated for various reasons throughout life. [32]. An ingredient in coffee, methylxanthine has long been used by humans in their diet [33].

2.2. Factors Influencing Soluble/Instant Espresso Coffee Selection and Reselection Intention

Various research has been carried out on the topic of the requirements of current modern consumers [34,35]. Mărcuţă et al. [36] pointed out that current consumers are looking for unique, sensory experiences that, according to them, can only be found in original, simple, traditional products. They point out that sensory preferences are the main motive for choosing the type of product. Suki [37] argued that intention plays a key role in influencing actual behavior, as well as in establishing a strong and close connection with actual behavior. Gajić et al. [38,39,40] found that there are eight factors that influence consumer choice: perceived financial risk, perceived risk of use, perceived psychological risk, perceived social risk, perception of weather risk, perception of convenience, perception of social benefit and perception of economic benefit. According to Ajzen and Fishbein [41] the best tool for predicting behavior is the intention that influences the behavior to be performed. Using preference mapping, Geel et al. [42] claimed in their study of a total sample of 199 respondents in South Africa, that four groups of coffee consumers were identified, “pure coffee lovers” (23%), “those who drink coffee blends” (30%), “general coffee users” (37%) and “non-serious coffee users” (10%). Huang and Dang [43] in their work, An Empirical Analysis on Purchase Intention on Coffee Beverage in Taiwan, came up with results that show that brand and price, product image, promotion and advertising, motivation, atmosphere and environment and taste are critical factors which affect the intention of coffee buyers. However, promotion and advertising play a major role in attracting customers [44]. Gonibala and Tumewu [45] claimed that taste, price, service and food quality are no longer the main concern for customers. The company should implement the right strategy, new concepts and creative ideas to make consumers feel comfortable. They conducted the survey on a sample of 60 respondents living in the city of Manado. In a total sample of 1368 respondents in Brazil, Sousa et al. [46] found that attitude, habits and sensory preferences affect the choice of coffee type. Ágoston et al. [47] identified six motivating factors: alertness, habit, mood, social, taste and symptom management.
Modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data [48]. Chin et al. [49] conducted a survey on predictors influencing Starbucks coffee selection on a total sample of 224 students at Taiwan colleges. Reasonable price and brand image were the main factors for buying coffee at Starbucks. Barahona et al. [50] found in their research that factory sensory attributes have a greater impact on purchase intentions than tasting attributes. Anssi and Sanna [51] claimed that the subjective norms of buying organic food influenced the intention to buy indirectly through the formation of attitudes. In addition, the results showed that the modified TPB model predicts intention to buy organic food better than the original model. A consumer-based perceptual/evaluation construct that is relative to a person, place and time and that is subject to the same influences of context and expectation as other phenomena of perception/evaluation is a measure of food quality [52]. Wandebori and Wijaya [53] applied a quantitative method to a total sample of 384 respondents in a Korean cafe. Multi-linear regression was applied to obtain the influence of service quality, food quality and atmosphere dimensions on the purchase intention. They concluded that atmosphere and food quality have a positive influence on purchase intention, while there was none such relationship between assurance dimension and purchase intention. Fandos and Flavian [54] examined the relationship between internal and external attributes of quality, loyalty and purchase intent and found that increasing the perceived quality of external attributes increased the number of repeated purchases. In three large well-known multinational fast-food stores in Faisalabad and Lahore in Pakistan, a total of 276 respondents gave answers as to the motives of their purchases. They confirmed the overall impact of service quality on the intention to purchase. Maciejewski and Mokrysz [55] found that the main trends that determine consumer behavior are naturalness and sustainability, health and nutrition, multisensory experience, convenience, digitization and individualization. Coffee sellers will also want to influence the choices and preferences of coffee consumers by supporting and developing such trends [56,57,58]. Sammogia et al. [59] gave results that showed consumers have pronounced emotions when consuming coffee. Socio-economic characteristics have a limited effect on perceived emotions and consumption motives. Spence et al. [60] investigated the impact of a multisensory atmosphere on the drinking experience, and found that the visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile aspects of the environment influenced the experience of tasting and drinking coffee. On a total sample of 358 adult respondents, Steptoe et al. [61] found that there are nine factors or motivators in food selection: health, mood, comfort, sensory attraction, natural content, price, weight control, closeness and ethical concern. In their research Chen et al. [62] indicated the results that attitude, subjective norms and perceived control of consumer behavior have a significant positive effect on the intention to buy. In addition, utilitarian and hedonic values have a significant positive impact on purchase intent; both utilitarian and hedonic values have a mediating effect on attitude, subjective norms, perceived control of behavior and intention to buy. Kim et al. [63] examined TPB’s power to predict consumer intentions to choose organic restaurant products. The results suggest that decision-making models, such as TPB, include expected emotions. Yazdanpanah and Forouzani [64] used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the relationship between attitude and action. The results showed that attitude is the main predictor of intention to buy organic food, which may also indicate predictors about consumer choices and habits regarding coffee consumption. Further indicating the importance of behavioral theories, many significant studies indicate that consumer behavior in the tourism and catering market are primarily influenced by demographic factors [65,66].
Based on the aim of this research and similar research in the given literature, a conceptual model of influence that certain factors could have on soluble/instant espresso coffee reselection is proposed (Figure 1).
Based on the conceptual model the following research hypotheses were set:
Hypothesis 1.
There is a significant connection between the attitude and intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant espresso coffee.
Hypothesis 2.
There is a significant connection between the social norms and the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant espresso coffee.
Hypothesis 3.
There is a significant connection between the perceived behavior control and the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant espresso coffee.
Hypothesis 4.
There is a significant connection between the habits of consumers and the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant espresso coffee.
Hypothesis 5.
There is a significant connection between the sensory preferences and the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant espresso coffee.

3. Methodology

Operationalization and Measurement Model

Bearing in mind the goal of the research, and for the purpose of analyzing the previously set conceptual model (Figure 1), and establishing the assumed connections between the variables, a mixed (combined) method of research was used. Combined research implies the use of primary and secondary data, more precisely the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in order to obtain more comprehensively valid, more reliable and more objective data. The initial purpose of the research was to determine the influence of the set factors on the choice of soluble/instant espresso coffee with additional values (organic beauty coffee, health coffee, energy boost coffee, better skin coffee, nail care coffee, etc.). The concept of the research method can be seen in the following diagram (Figure 2).
From a total of 2000 distributed questionnaires, 1385 completely filled questionnaires were collected and could be taken into analysis. The questionnaire was reviewed in several stages of preparation to reduce “double meaning” and check whether the questions were accurate. According to a sample of 20 voluntary respondents, a pilot survey was conducted to assess whether the questions were clear, understandable and suitable for answering and further mathematical-statistical processing of the obtained data, after which some of the questions were reformulated and eliminated from the questionnaire. It must be pointed out that the authors had the help of a total of 25 students of Tourism and Hotel Management in Belgrade and Novi Sad, who performed anchoring in the field. The survey lasted from January to July 2021. The interviewers conducted the survey in several Serbian districts (The territory of Serbia is divided into districts), more precisely the largest cities belonging to those districts, which are also the places of greatest concentration of importers and the processing of coffee and derivatives (Figure 3): West Bačka District (Sombor–158 respondents), South Bačka District (Novi Sad–214 respondents), city of Belgrade (426 respondents), Moravica District (Čačak–121 respondents), Nišava District (Niš-115 respondents), Srem District (Sremska Mitrovica–182 respondents) and Šumadija District (Kragujevac–169 respondents).
It was decided to use a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior, established by Fishbein and Ajzen [37], with some modifications of the variables, in order to match the questions with the aim and hypotheses of the research. The modified questionnaire contained questions related to the attitude of consumers—AT (containing a total of three questions: instant coffee is a smart choice; replace instant coffee with tea or other coffee; and instant coffee is the best choice), social norms—SN (containing a total of four questions: friends have influence on coffee choices; relatives’ influence on choice of coffee; colleagues’ influence on choice of coffee; and the environment, media and brand of coffee influence on choice of coffee), perceived behavior control—PBC (containing a total of five questions: the choice of instant coffee depends only on me; I am familiar with artificial sweeteners that contain instant coffee; I know how much caffeine instant coffee contains; I was instructed in the expiration date of the coffee; and I compare the shelf life of instant coffee with the reduced price), which represented the basic predictors in determining the influence on the choice of coffee according to the basic TPB (theory of planned behavior) model. The modification included the insertion of two additional factors, also with the role of predictor in the extended TPB model [61]: habits—HB (containing a total of four questions: frequency of using instant coffee; part of the day of using instant coffee; place where instant coffee is most often drunk; and drinking coffee along with other activities) and sensory preferences (containing a total of eight questions: the influence of visual appearance; using instant coffee with aromas; the influence of flavors on choice; using some sweets with instant coffee; the influence of sensory quality on selection; the influence of coffee fragrance on choice; the taste of coffee influences the choice; and coffee color affects the choice). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is derived from the theory of reasoning action put forward by Fishbein [5] together with Ajzen [37]. Ajzen’s model of planned behavior represents an upgrade of the theory of reasoning action, and its further elaboration. In the theory of planned behavior, intention is considered a direct cause of behavior. The theory claims that the three basic components, namely, attitude, subjective norms and perceived control of behavior, together shape the intentions of an individual’s behavior [61]. There is much research (listed in the literature review) that indicates that the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the most widely applied in explaining connections and causality between different beliefs and behaviors. This theory indicates that beliefs form the basis constructs: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control that influence intention, which then has a direct impact on the performance of the behavior. This model has shown good predictive value for many behaviors and areas of human activity. For the same reason, the authors opted for this theory to prove the influence of given factors on consumer behavior in choosing the type of coffee. The factors mentioned include key issues related to determining behavior and making key decisions. This theory was chosen in order to obtain results related to reselection of the type of coffee, and subsequent behavioral intentions, to confirm that other factors have an influence, not only perceived behavioral control, but individual perception of social norms, sensory quality and habits.
SPSS AMOS software, version 26.00 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), was used. Respondents were given the opportunity to express the degree of their agreement or disagreement for each statement, as a rule, on a five-point Likert scale. Through exploratory factor analysis, all items were classified into a total of five factors, which is presented in a table with data on the saturation of all factors. Then, with the help of SEM analysis, the influence of each of the factors on the decision to choose coffee was determined.

4. Results

4.1. Study Sample

In this survey 7.4% of respondents under the age of 18 participated, then 30.7% aged from 19 to 25, 52.2% from 26 to 50 and 9.7% over the age of 50. Of the total number of participants, 30.3% (419) are men and 69.7% (966) are women. About 40.1% of them are students by occupation, 6.1% are high school students, 8% are retired, 44.5% are employed, and 1.2% are unemployed. In terms of monthly income, 31.5% have incomes of 100 euros, 17.8% from 100 to 250 euros, 30.2% from 250 euros to 500 euros and 20.5% more than 500 euros per month. The largest percentage of respondents (83.6%) opt for hot instant espresso coffee, while others prefer different instant coffee. In the given chart, it is possible to single out a specific product that can represent a sustainable brand on the coffee market in Serbia, which is instant espresso coffee, as well as a sustainable form of culture and the habits of the people of this region. Figure 4 shows Percentage values of coffee type selection by research participants.

4.2. Factor Analysis

The authors performed an exploratory factor analysis to reduce the set of 24 manifest variables into a smaller number of latent variables or factors. The main goal of factor analysis is to explain the common variance of a set of manifest variables. Cronbach‘s alpha test for all factors was used to assess the reliability of the tests in the hierarchical organization of data. The following Cronbach alpha values were obtained: attitude (AT-3 items- α = 0.899; social norms (SN-4 items-α = 0.788), perceived behavioral control (PBC-5 items-α = 0.820), habits (HB-4 items-α = 0.709), and sensory preferences (SP-8 items-α = 0.859). KMO and Bartlett’s Test show the proportion of variability of the original variables that can be explained by potential common factors. The value of the sample adequacy parameter (KMO = 0.883) and a significant Bartlett’s test of sphericity [χ2(276) = 3640.149; p < 0.00] indicate the factorability of the intercorrelation matrix, which means that it makes sense to continue with further factor analysis. The assumption about the one-dimensionality of the questionnaire was checked using the principal axis method in the SPSS 26.00 program. This matrix explains a total of 36.12% of the total variances of the scale and groups the loadings of the items around five content-specific and highly correlated linear factors. Table 1 shows the loadings of all factors. The first factor explains the largest percentage of the variance 10.06%, then all the following factor explains less percentages. The fifth factor has the least saturation, with a total of 5.46% of variance explained.

4.3. Model Fitting

The χ2 test yields a value of 826,163 which, evaluated with 247 degrees of freedom, has a corresponding p-value of 0.00. This p-value is too high to reject the null of a good fit. Chi-square is an observation of a random variable that has an approximate chi distribution with 247 degrees of freedom. The graph shows items, manifest variables, as well as the latent variable intention and choose of instant espresso coffee. Standardized factor loads and values of direct and indirect effects, as well as errors, are shown in Table 2. The reliability of the questionnaire was checked by Cronbach’s Alpha (must be above 0.07), and in this case, the value is α = 0.897, which indicates the high reliability of the questionnaire.

4.4. Results of SEM Analysis

The validation of the measuring instrument was satisfied, and the results of the causal relationship between intent factors are given in Table 3.
The first covariance between attitude (AT) and sensory preferences (SP), is estimated to be 0.0330, with an estimate of the standard covariance error S.E = 0.0075. Estimate 0.0330 is an observation of an approximately normally distributed random variable centered around the covariance of a population with a standard deviation of 0.0075. These figures serve to construct a 95% confidence interval on the covariance population by calculating the estimate and S.E. The critical ratio (C.R) was obtained by dividing the covariance estimate by its standard error. At a statistical significance of p < 0.05, any C.R exceeding 1.96 is considered significant. If this value is achieved, it is considered that the covariance between the variables differs significantly from 0, at the level of significance p < 0.05. It is noticed that this value is above than 1.96, therefore it can be concluded that the relaxation significantly affects the variable (C.R = 4.4202). The values of covariances between habits (HB) and attitude (AT) are estimate 0.0325, S.E = 0.0106 and C.R 3.0587, and p value is statistically significant. In addition, covariance between attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC) is statistically significant because p value is 0.0572 with C.R = 1.9016. It can be noticed that the values between the variables attitude (AT) and sensory preferences (SP) have no statistical significance, which is also confirmed by the value of the critical ratio, which is −0.0127. The covariance between sensory preferences (SP) and perceived behavioral control (PBC), is estimated to be 0.0203, but statistically significant with p = 0.0144, S.E = 0.0083 and C.R = 2.4482. The relationship between the variables habits (HB) and social norms (SN), then between habits (HB) and perceived behavioral control (PBC), perceived behavioral control (PBC) and social norms (SN), habits (HB) and sensory preferences (SP) have no statistical significance, nor other values suitable for noticing a good relationship between these variables. Only a significant link remains between social norms (SN) and sensory preferences (SP), where the values are as follows: estimate = −0.0606, S.E = 0.0100, C.R = −6.0801 and value p = 0.000.
Table 4 provides an insight into the results of SEM analysis for all items. The table clearly indicates the estimate for each predictor, standard error and critical ration value. In addition, each predictor shows statistical significance.
Table 5 shows links between predictors and intention to select coffee. Values for estimate, critical ratio and statistical significance are given. Statistical significance is observed in each of the links.
Figure 5 shows the data of factor saturation for all items, as well as all values of direct and indirect influences of attitudes, social norms, planned behavior and habits of intention to choose instant coffee, with the indicated hypotheses.

5. Discussion

5.1. Attitude (AT)

The attitude of consumers plays an important role in the choice and intention of consumers to buy a product or to repeat a purchase. This is also the case when choosing the type of coffee. In Sousa et al. [67], the results showed the state of habits of coffee consumers, where the most common reason for consuming coffee was “personal satisfaction” (48%).
Research has shown that the influence of the attitude factor has statistical significance when it comes to the intention to choose instant coffee. The covariance between attitude (AT) and intention is estimated to be 1782, with standard covariance error S.E = 0.6207. The influence of this factor shows the value of p = 0.0041 and the value of C.R = 2.8723. Hypothesis H1 is confirmed that attitude as a predictor variable has a significant connection with the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant coffee.

5.2. Social Norms (SN)

Tjokrosaputro and Cokki [68] showed that social influence had a direct impact on purchasing intent but did not have an indirect effect through perceived value. In addition, a similar study was performed by Ramírez-Correa et al. [69] on a sample of 489 coffee consumers from Brazil. They show a moderate effect of consumer perception of social influence on coffee choice. Abdeen et al. [70] concluded that only ethical beliefs have a direct connection with shopping behavior. The study was conducted in the unique context of New Zealand, and shows that ethical, philanthropic and legal beliefs influence the intention to support and conduct shopping. Kolkailah et al. [71] stated that economic criteria are still given priority over social criteria. Arruda et al. [72] in their research, concluded, more precisely, that drinking coffee has social significance in addition to habit. This indicates the motivation for coffee consumption, and reflects the social significance of drinks at home, at work or in friendships. The predictor variable social norms has the following values: at 95% confidence interval p is statistically significant because the value of p = 0.013, which confirms the value of CR greater than 1.96 (C.R = 2.4701), estimate = −0.7990, and S.E = 0.3235. Hypothesis H2: there is a significant connection between social norms and the intention of the consumer to decide to buy instant coffee, has been confirmed. It turned out that all the factors that made up social norms have an impact on coffee selection.

5.3. Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC)

Kang et al. [73] in their research concluded that perceived behavioral control and attitude have significant effects on the intention of consumers. Bui et al. [74] found that perceived behavioral control has a great influence on consumer behavior in choosing to buy products. Moser [75] also found that perceived behavioral control influences the choice of healthy foods and organic products. The covariance between the predictor of variable perceived behavioral control and intention proved to have no statistical significance, because the value of p = 0.5921. Hypothesis H3, that this predictor may influence the choice of instant coffee, is denied. It is obvious that the factors that made up this predictor proved to be irrelevant in influencing consumer intention.

5.4. Habits (HB)

Skubina et al. [76] described the characteristics of coffee consumers and presented their segmentation on consumer choice and habits towards coffee consumption. According to their research 1500 adult respondents in Poland report coffee consumption, and they prefer conventional methods of coffee brewing. Arruda et al. [72] pointed out in their research that consumers associate coffee consumption with habit, pleasure, family, friendship and work. Sousa et al. [67] immediately pointed out that in a large percentage the habit is represented as a motivator of coffee selection among consumers. The authors in this study concluded that habits have a significant impact on consumer intention in choosing instant coffee. The covariance between the variable of habit and intention has the following values: estimate = 0.9542, S.E = 0.3520, C.R = 2.7105, with a statistical significance of p = 0.0067 (hypothesis H4 was confirmed).

5.5. Sensory Preferences (SP)

Research on the influence of sensory preferences on the choice of coffee type was conducted by Tolessa et al. [77] where they concluded that the prediction of specialty coffee cup quality was based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans. They also pointed out that the quality attributes (general cup preference, acidity, body and taste) show a high significance in choosing type of coffee. The aroma of coffee is an essential part of the coffee experience and sets the stage for the taste of coffee. This is because it is a good indicator of the overall freshness of the coffee and its quality. Bitterness is wanted in coffee to a certain extent, such as in espresso or darker roasts as it can add to the fullness of taste [78] Sweetness is the second flavor sensation that can be experienced while drinking coffee. It provides a smoothness and flavor without undesirable tastes or harshness. While there are different ways to determine coffee quality, many ratings are dependent on using the cupping method along with a grade score out of 100 points based on the taste of coffee and the categories mentioned earlier: aroma, acidity, body, flavor and aftertaste. In this research, based on the obtained results, it is noticed that sensory preferences play a strong role of predictors when it comes to the intention to choose instant coffee. The covariance between sensory preferences (SP) and intention is estimated to be 1017, and an estimate of the standard covariance error is S.E = 0.377. The value of critical ratio C.R is 2699 and statistical significance was observed at p = 0.007. (Hypothesis H5 was confirmed).

6. Conclusions

In recent decades sustainability has been reflected in the introduction of new forms of coffee on the market, which support a special packaging for the preservation of the natural environment, and then coffee with special minerals and vitamins that contribute to a healthier lifestyle. However, in Serbia, this form of coffee is still not sufficiently promoted; the consumption is limited among modern consumers with higher social status and healthy lifestyle promoters such as spa centers and high-quality service hotels.
The influence of external and internal factors on the behavior of modern consumers regarding soluble/instant coffee plays a key role in identifying and meeting the needs and achieving goals in the sales market. Four factors or predictors, attitude, social norms, habits and sensory preferences, have a strong influence on the intention to select and reselection soluble/instant coffee. The influence of perceived behavioral control has no statistical significance exceeding the allowed values.
According to the results, intention is the key mediator between independent variables (attitudes about soluble/instant coffee consumption, subjective norms, habits and sensory preferences) and coffee reselection behavior. It can be concluded that better understanding of coffee consumers’ intentions can make the coffee market more sensitive and effective in operation management techniques and improve consumers’ satisfaction and, also, gain a better understanding of reselection behavior.
This research provides new results related to consumers’ subsequent reselection behavioral intentions and indicates that they are not influenced by perceived behavioral control but by individual perceptions of social norms, sensory quality and habits. The significance of the research is in the qualification of factors that influence the intention of future behavior and shows how attitudes about soluble/instant coffee consumption can influence the reselection of soluble/instant coffee type. Building on global best practices it is necessary to find sustainable soluble/instant coffee solutions, for example, organic origin, sustainable packaging and added values that have positive influence on health, which could significantly improve continuous market implementation and increase sales.

7. Limitations and Future Implications

During the research, the authors encountered some difficulties, which can be considered limiting circumstances. One of the limits of the research is certainly the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, where perhaps the number of most representative respondents was limited. Restricted access to consumers in spa centers and high-quality service hotels which are the main distributors of soluble/instant coffee with added values was certainly a limitation of the research. The recommendation for future research is to go out into the field and conduct a questionnaire through face-to-face research interviews to differentiate competing products and improve marketing tools.
The results of this research will certainly serve as a guideline for future research, with the proviso that the model can also be further expanded with more variables or predictors. On the other hand, research can have marketing implications and improve communication with the target market. The study of the positive effects of consumer behavior contributes to the sales and consumption of this product. Of course, based on the results, it is possible to determine which target groups should place instant coffee to a greater extent and increase sales in the right direction and reduce costs, given that instant coffee is not one of the key market products in Serbia. The obtained results may have practical and theoretical implications in the area of the market of import and sale of coffee, and its special derivatives. Namely, by researching the market in this way, it will be possible to see to what extent this type of coffee should be promoted and marketed and made more accessible to a larger mass of consumers through certain price corrections or other factors. The assumption is that the results will contribute to the understanding of the current state of the market, and the offer of functional soluble/instant espresso solutions will expand beyond the of the current market offer. Furthermore, the research contributes to the development of the theory of consumer behavior in a certain market and the acceptance of a special or new product. This research will provide insight into how this specific product is quoted by consumers in relation to competing products and help with strategic steps to be taken for better consumption.
The research should certainly be repeated using a larger sample, but it should also include the main centers of the country that have hotels with high-quality service, where it is possible to consume new forms of coffee.

Author Contributions

T.G.: conceptualization, software and methodology, writing—original draft preparation, J.P.R.: Conceptualization, methodology and editing, M.A.: conceptualization, investigation and editing I.B.: validation and formal analysis, M.D.P.: resources, M.M.R.: data curation, D.B.V.: writing—review and editing, V.S.: visualization, D.V.: supervision, M.K.: project administration, D.S.: editing, software, T.P.: methodology, O.M.I.: writing, M.P.: supervision. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.


Co-author Darko Vuković has been supported by the RUDN University Strategic Academic Leadership Program. The study is the result of the RUDN Strategic Academic Leadership Program Priority-2030 for project No. 064703-2-174.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Ramirez-Gomez, C.J.; Macchione Saes, M.S.; dos Santos Silva, V.L.; Souza Piao, R. The coffee value chain and its transition to sustainability in Brazil and Colombia from innovation system approach. Int. J. Agric. Sustain. 2022, 2022, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Hoseini, M.; Cocco, S.; Casucci, C.; Cardelli, V.; Corti, G. Coffee by products derived resources. A review. Biomass Bioenergy 2021, 148, 106009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Yang, S.H.; Hu, W.; Mupandawana, M.; Liu, Y. Consumer willingness to pay for Fair Trade coffee: A Chinese case study. J. Agric. Appl. Econ. 2012, 44, 21–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Morret, R.A. Comparative Study of Coffee Culture between Italy and South Korea: An Exploratory Study. Asia-Pac. J. Bus. 2017, 8, 41–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Van der Vossen, H.A.M. A critical analysis of the agronomic and economic sustainability of organic coffee production. Exp. Agric. 2005, 41, 449–473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Cantele, C.; Tedesco, M.; Ghirardello, D.; Zeppa, G.; Bertolino, M. Coffee as a Functional Ingredient in Vegan Biscuits: Physicochemical and Sensory Properties and In Vitro Bio-accessibility of Bioactive Compounds. Foods 2022, 11, 717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Murthy, P.; Naidu, M. Sustainable management of coffee industry by products and value addition—A review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2012, 66, 45–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. De Neto Dão Pedro, C.; Gonot-Schoupinsky Xavier, P.; Gonot-Schoupinsky, F.N. Coffee as a Naturally Beneficial and Sustainable Ingredient in Personal Care Products: A Systematic Scoping Review of the Evidence. Front. Sustain. 2021, 2, 87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Fishbein, M.; Ajzen, I. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research; Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, USA, 1975. [Google Scholar]
  10. Paul, J.; Modi, A.; Patel, J. Predicting green product consumption using the theory of planned behavior and reasoned action. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2016, 29, 123–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Wu, W.Y.; Do, T.Y.; Nguyen, P.T.; Anridho, N.; Vu, M.Q. An integrated framework of customer-based brand equity and theory of planned behavior: A meta-analysis approach. J. Asian Financ. Econ. Bus. 2020, 7, 371–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Lentijo, G.M.; Hostetler, M. Evaluating certified coffee programs. Sustainability 2011, 15, 199–223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. International Coffe Organization. Available online: (accessed on 5 May 2022).
  14. Gajić, T.; Radovanović, M.; Tretiakova, T.; Syromiatnikova, J. Creating brand confidence to gastronomic consumers through social networks–a report from Novi Sad. J. Place Manag. Dev. 2020, 14, 32–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Blešić, I.; Petrović, M.D.; Gajić, T.; Tretiakova, T.N.; Syromiatnikova, J.A.; Radovanović, M.; Popov-Raljić, J.; Yakovenko, N.V. How the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Can be Applied in the Research of the Influencing Factors of Food Waste in Restaurants: Learning from Serbian Urban Centers. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Consumers International. Available online: (accessed on 5 May 2022).
  17. Vermeir, I.; Verbeke, W. Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer “attitude–behavioral intention” gap. J. Agric. Environ. Ethics 2006, 19, 169–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Williamson, G.; Dionisi, F.; Renouf, M. Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: Critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2011, 55, 864–873. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Dodamgoda, N.; Amarasinghe, K. The Impact of Sensory Branding on Consumer Preference of Coffee Shops in Colombo. J. Bus. Manag. 2019, 21, 21–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Sörqvist, P.; Hedblom, D.; Holmgren, M.; Haga, A.; Langeborg, L.; Nöstl, A.; Kågström, J. Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling? Taste and willingness to pay for “eco-friendly” coffee. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e80719. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Cailleba, P.; Casteran, H. Do ethical values work? A quantitative study on the impact of Fair Trade coffee on consumer behavior. J. Bus. Ethics 2010, 97, 613–624. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Carrington, M.J.; Neville, B.A.; Whitwell, G.J. Why ethical consumers don’t walk their talk: Towards a framework for understanding the gap between the ethical purchase intentions and actual buying behavior of ethically minded consumers. J. Bus. Ethics 2010, 97, 139–158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School. Available online: (accessed on 1 April 2022).
  24. Lee, S.Y.; Jung, G.; Jang, M.J.; Suh, M.W.; Lee, J.H.; Oh, S.H.; Park, M.K. Association of coffee consumption with hearing and tinnitus based on a national population-based survey. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1429. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  25. Haller, S.; Montandon, M.L.; Rodriguez, C.; Herrmann, F.R.; Giannakopoulos, P. Impact of coffee, wine, and chocolate consumption on cognitive outcome and MRI parameters in old age. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Yaya, I.; Marcellin, F.; Costa, M.; Morlat, P.; Protopopescu, C.; Pialoux, G.; Santos, M.E.; Wittkop, L.; Esterle, L.; Gervais, A. Impact of alcohol and coffee intake on the risk of advanced liver fibrosis: A longitudinal analysis in hiv-hcv coinfected patients. Nutrients 2018, 10, 705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Van Dijk, R.; Ties, D.; Kuijpers, D.; Van der Harst, P.; Oudkerk, M. Effects of caffeine on myocardial blood flow: A systematic review. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1083. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Bae, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Im, S.S.; Song, D.K. Coffee and Health. Integr. Med. Res. 2014, 3, 189–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Leviton, A. Biases inherent in studies of coffee consumption in early pregnancy and the risks of subsequent events. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Barnung, R.; Nøst, T.; Ulven, S.M.; Skeie, G.; Olsen, K. Coffee consumption and whole-blood gene expression in the norwegian women and cancer post-genome cohort. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1047. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Poole, R.; Kennedy, O.J.; Roderick, P.; Fallowfield, J.A.; Hayes, P.C.; Parkes, J. Coffee consumption and health: Umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ 2017, 359, j5024. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Nehlig, A. Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients? Pract. Neurol. 2016, 16, 89–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Franco, R.; Oñatibia-Astibia, A.; Martínez-Pinilla, E. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4159–4173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Wong, A.; Sohal, A. A critical incident approach to the examination of customer relationship management in a retail chain: An exploratory study. Qual. Mark. Res. Int. J. 2003, 6, 248–262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Zhang, Q.; Prasongsukarn, K. A relationship study of price promotion, customer quality evaluation, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intention: A case study of Starbucks in Thailand. Int. J. Manag. Appl. Sci. 2017, 3, 29–32. Available online: (accessed on 3 February 2022).
  36. Mărcuţă, L.; Mărcuţă, A.; Mârzab, B. Modern Tendencies in Changing the Consumers’ Preferences. In Proceedings of the 21st International Economic Conference 2014, IECS 2014, Sibiu, Romania, 16–17 May 2014. Procedia Econ. Financ. 2014, 16, 535–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Suki, N.M. Subscribers Intention Towards Using 3G Mobile Services. J. Econ. Behav. Stud. 2011, 2, 67–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Gajić, T.; Raljić Popov, J.; Aleksić, M.; Blešić, I.; Vukolić, D.; Petrović, M.D.; Yakovenko, N.V.; Sikimić, V. Creating Opportunities for the Development of Craft Beer Tourism in Serbia as a New Form of Sustainable Tourism. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8730. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Gajić, T.; Petrović, D.M.; Blešić, I.; Radovanović, M.; Syromjatnikowa, J. The Power of Fears in the Travel Decisions: COVID-19 vs. Lack of Money. J. Tour. Futures 2021, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Gajić, T.; Petrović, D.; Radovanović, M.; Vuković, D.; Yakovenko, N.V. Women’s Role in Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in the Travel Industry–An Evidence From the Urban Setting. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Ajzen, I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Processes 1991, 50, 179–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Geel, L.; Kinnear, M.; Kock, H.L. Relating consumer preferences to sensory attributes of instant coffee. Food Qual. Prefer. 2005, 16, 237–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Huang, Y.F.; Dang, H.S. An Empirical Analysis on Purchase Intention on Coffee Beverage in Taiwan, European. J. Bus. Manag. 2014, 6, 182–196. [Google Scholar]
  44. Hassan, H.; Hashimi, M.S.; Sarwar, Z. Exploring the Impact of retail Stores’ Service Quality on Consumers’ Purchase Intention: The Moderating Role of CSR. Middle-East J. Sci. Res. 2014, 19, 505–520. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Gonibala, R.Q.; Tumewu, F. The Effect of Store Atmosphere and Peer Pressure on Purchase Intention at Housepitality Café and Restaurant. J. EMBA 2018, 6, 2638–2647. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Parks-Leduc, L.; Feldman, G.; Bardi, A. Personality Traits and Personal Values: A Meta-Analysis. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 2014, 19, 3–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  47. Ágoston, C.; Urbán, R.; Király, O.; Griffiths, M.D.; Rogers, P.; Demetrovics, Z. Why Do You Drink Caffeine? The Development of the Motives for Caffeine Consumption Questionnaire (MCCQ) and Its Relationship with Gender, Age and the Types of Caffeinated Beverages. Int. J. Ment. Health Addict. 2017, 16, 981–999. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Li, B.; Hayesab, J.E.; Ziegle, G.R. Interpreting consumer preferences: Physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage. Food Qual. Prefer. 2014, 36, 27–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Chin, M.L.; Ri, J.F.; Chung, C.H.; Ya, P.H.; Yun, H.C.; Yu, C.L.; Ya, H.C. Factors Affect College Students Intention to Purchase StarbucksCafé Products. Int. J. Bus. Manag. 2016, 4, 262–267. [Google Scholar]
  50. Barahona, I.; Mauricio, E.; Jaimes, S.; Yang, J.B. Sensory attributes of coffee beverages and their relation to price and package information: A case study of Colombian customers’ preferences. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 8, 1173–1186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Anssi, T.; Sanna, S. Subjective Norms, Attitudes and Intention of Finish Consumers in Buying Organic Food. Br. Food J. 2005, 107, 808–822. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Cardello. Food quality: Relativity, context and consumer expectations. Food Qual. Prefer. 1995, 6, 163–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Wandebori, H.; Wijaya, V. Consumers’ Purchase Intention: Influencing Factors unveiled at Korean Thematic Café Case Study: Chingu Café. J. Bus. Manag. 2017, 18, 73–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Fandos, C.; Flavian, C. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Quality Attributes, Loyalty, and Buying Intention: An Analysis For a PDO Product. Br. Food J. 2006, 108, 646–662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Maciejewski, G.; Mokrysz, S. New Trends in Consumption on the Coffee Market. Polityki Eur. Finans. Mark. 2020, 22, 132–144. [Google Scholar]
  56. Casal, S.; Alves, M.R.; Mendes, E.; Oliveira, M.; Ferreira, M. Discrimination between Arabica and Robusta Coffee Species on the Basis of Their Amino Acid Enantiomers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 6495–6501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Popov Raljić, J. Sensory Analysis of Food and Beverages; Department of Geography, Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad: Novi Sad, Serbia, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  58. Tucker, C.M. Coffee Culture: Local Experiences, Global Connections; Routledge: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  59. Samoggia, A.; Del Prete, M.; Argenti, C. Functional Needs, Emotions, and Perceptions of Coffee Consumers and Non-Consumers. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5694. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Spence, C.; Carvalho, F.M. The coffee drinking experience: Product extrinsic (atmospheric) influences on taste and choice. Food Qual. Prefer. 2020, 80, 103802. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Steptoe, A.; Pollard, T.; Wardle, J. Development of a Measure of the Motives Underlying the Selection of Food: The Food Choice Questionnaire. Appetite 1995, 25, 267–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Chen, H.S.; Liang, C.H.; Liao, S.Y.; Kuo, H.Y. Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions toward Food Delivery Platform Services. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Kim, Y.J.; Njite, D.; Hancer, M. Anticipated emotions in consumer’s intentions to select eco-friendly restaurants: Augmenting the theory of planned behavior. International. J. Hosp. Manag. 2013, 34, 255–262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Yazdanpanah, M.; Forouzani, M. Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict Iranian students’ intention to purchase organic food. J. Clean. Prod. 2015, 107, 342–352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Florido-Benıtez, L. International mobile marketing: A satisfactory concept for companies and users in times of pandemic. Benchmarking Int. J. 2022, 29, 1826–1856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Florido-Benıtez, L. The Influence of Demographic and Situational Characteristics in Satisfaction and Decisions in Tourism Activities Via Mobile Marketing. Cuad. Tur. 2016, 38, 529–532. [Google Scholar]
  67. Sousa, A.G.; Machado, L.; da Silva, E.; da Costa, T. Personal characteristics of coffee consumers and non-consumers, reasons and preferences for foods eaten with coffee among adults from the Federal District, Brazil. Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 36, 432–438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Tjokrosaputro, M.; Cokki, C. The Role of Social Influence Towards Purchase Intention With Value Perception as Mediator: A Study on Starbucks Coffee as an Environmentally Friendly Product. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Entrepreneurship and Business Management (ICEBM 2019) UNTAR, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7 November 2019; Volume 145, pp. 183–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Ramírez-Correa, P.; Rondan-Cataluña, F.; Moulaz, M.; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge. Purchase Intention of Specialty Coffee. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Abdeen, A.; Rajah, E.; Gaur, S. Consumers’ beliefs about firm’s CSR initiatives and their purchase behaviour. Mark. Intell. Plan. 2016, 34, 2–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Kolkailah, K.S.; Aish, A.E.; El-Bassiouny, N. The impact of corporate social responsibility initiatives on consumers’ behavioural intentions in the Egyptian market. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 2012, 36, 369–384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Arruda, A.C.; Minim, V.P.R.; Ferreira, M.A.M.; Minim, L.A.; da Silva, N.M.; Soares, C.F. Justificativas e motivações do consumo e não consumo de café. Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 29, 754–763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Kang, H.; Hahn, M.; Fortin, D.R.; Hyun, Z.J.; Eom, Z. Effects of perceived behavioral control on the consumer usage intention of e-coupons. Psyhol. Mark. 2006, 23, 841–864. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Bui, T.Q.; Nguyen, N.T.; Nguyen, K.K.; Tran, T.T. Antecedents affecting purchase intention of green skincare products: A case study in Vietnam. J. Asian Financ. Econ. Bus. 2021, 8, 1295–1302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Moser, A.K. Thinking green, buying green? Drivers of pro-environmental purchasing behavior. J. Consum. Mark. 2015, 32, 167–175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Skubina, E.C.; Pielak, M.; Sałek, P.; Ginter, R.K.; Owczarek, T. Consumer Choices and Habits Related to Coffee Consumption by Poles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 39–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Tolessa, K.; Rademaker, M.; De Baets, B.; Boeckx, P. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans. Talanta 2016, 150, 367–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Xu, Y.; Hamid, N.; Shepherd, D.; Kantono, K.; Spence, C. Changes in flavour, emotion, and electrophysiological measurements when consuming chocolate ice cream in different eating environments. Food Qual. Prefer. 2019, 77, 191–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Conceptual model of influence of certain factors on soluble/instant espresso coffee reselection. Source: author’s research.
Figure 1. Conceptual model of influence of certain factors on soluble/instant espresso coffee reselection. Source: author’s research.
Sustainability 14 10701 g001
Figure 2. Diagram of research methodology concept. Source: author’s research.
Figure 2. Diagram of research methodology concept. Source: author’s research.
Sustainability 14 10701 g002
Figure 3. Concentration of coffee importers and processors (places of sample collection). Source: author’s research.
Figure 3. Concentration of coffee importers and processors (places of sample collection). Source: author’s research.
Sustainability 14 10701 g003
Figure 4. Percentage values of coffee type selection by research participants. Source: author’s research.
Figure 4. Percentage values of coffee type selection by research participants. Source: author’s research.
Sustainability 14 10701 g004
Figure 5. Standardized factor loads, values of direct and indirect effects. Source: author’s research.
Figure 5. Standardized factor loads, values of direct and indirect effects. Source: author’s research.
Sustainability 14 10701 g005
Table 1. Factor loadings and sample adequacy parameter values.
Table 1. Factor loadings and sample adequacy parameter values.
FactorInitial EigenvaluesExtraction Sums of Squared LoadingsRotation Sums of Squared Loadings a
Total% of VarianceCumulative %Total% of VarianceCumulative %Total
KMO and Bartlett’s test
Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0.883; Bartlett’s test of sphericity approx. chi-square (χ2) = 3640.149
df = 0.276
sig. = 0.00
Source: author’s research. Extraction method: principal component analysis. a When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.
Table 2. Fit statistics of the measurement model.
Table 2. Fit statistics of the measurement model.
Fit StatisticRecommendedObtained
Source: author’s research.
Table 3. Results of the causal relationship between intent factors for instant coffee selection (Regression weights).
Table 3. Results of the causal relationship between intent factors for instant coffee selection (Regression weights).
AT ↔ SP0.03300.00754.4202***
HB ↔ AT0.03250.01063.05870.0022
AT ↔ PBC0.01110.00591.90160.0572
AT ↔ SN−0.00010.0096−0.01270.9899
SN ↔ PBC0.02030.00832.44820.0144
HB ↔ SN−0.00920.0065−1.42230.1549
SN ↔ SP−0.06060.0100−6.0801***
HB ↔ PBC−0.00620.0039−1.57240.1159
PBC ↔ SP−0.00700.0056−1.24350.2137
HB ↔ SP 0.00310.00410.74230.4579
Source: author’s research. *** AT—attitude; SP—sensory preferences; PBC—perceived behavioral control; HB—habits, SN—social norms.
Table 4. SEM analysis values for all predictors.
Table 4. SEM analysis values for all predictors.
AT 1—Instant coffee is a smart choice2.4850.045155.153***
AT 2—Replace instant coffee with tea or other coffee1.7590.0115152.957***
AT3—Instant coffee is the best choice1.5950.019084.079***
SN1—Friends have influence on coffee choices2.2270.030473.2319***
SN2—Relatives influence on choice of coffee1.1920.0106112.579***
SN3—Colleagues influence on choice of coffee1.6130.018587.287***
SN4—The environment, media and brand of coffee influence on choice of coffee2.4120.0202119.287***
PBC1—The choice of instant coffee depends only on me1.4390.0133107.873***
PBC2—I am familiar with artificial sweeteners that contain instant coffee1.7570.0115152.305***
PBC3—I know how much caffeine instant coffee contains1.7040.0123138.862***
PBC4—I was instructed in the expiration date of the coffee1.5660.133117.552***
PBC5—I compare the shelf life of instant coffee with the reduced price1.5180.0134112.993***
HB1—Frequency of using instant coffee 2.9860.030298.756***
HB2—Part of the day of using instant coffee2.2040.022697.627***
HB3—A place where instant coffee is most often drunk2.1880.030671.578***
HB4—Drinking coffee along with other activities2.6840.044560.248***
SP1— The influence of visual appearance 1.7140.0121141.124***
SP2—Using instant coffee with aromas1.5990.0132121.319***
SP3—The influence of flavors on choice 1.8120.031956.890***
SP4—Using some sweets with instant coffee1.6450.0129127.854***
SP5—The influence of sensory quality on selection1.8640.023978.089***
SP6—The influence of coffee fragrance on choice 1.6220.020379.893***
SP7—The taste of coffee influences the choice1.6160.022173.217***
SP8—Coffee color affects the choice1.5760.021374.060***
Source: author’s research. *** AT—attitude; SN—social norms; PBC—perceived behavioral control; HB—habits; SP—sensory preferences.
Table 5. Results of SEM analysis—causal links between predictors and intention to select coffee.
Table 5. Results of SEM analysis—causal links between predictors and intention to select coffee.
AT ← IN1.78270.62072.87230.0041
SN ← IN−0.79900.3235−2.47010.0135
PBC ← IN−0.08940.1664−0.53700.5921
HB ← IN0.95420.35202.71050.0067
SP ← IN1.0170.3772.6990.007
Source: author’s research.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Gajić, T.; Raljić, J.P.; Blešić, I.; Aleksić, M.; Petrović, M.D.; Radovanović, M.M.; Vuković, D.B.; Sikimić, V.; Pivac, T.; Kostić, M.; et al. Factors That Influence Sustainable Selection and Reselection Intentions Regarding Soluble/Instant Coffee—The Case of Serbian Consumers. Sustainability 2022, 14, 10701.

AMA Style

Gajić T, Raljić JP, Blešić I, Aleksić M, Petrović MD, Radovanović MM, Vuković DB, Sikimić V, Pivac T, Kostić M, et al. Factors That Influence Sustainable Selection and Reselection Intentions Regarding Soluble/Instant Coffee—The Case of Serbian Consumers. Sustainability. 2022; 14(17):10701.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gajić, Tamara, Jovanka Popov Raljić, Ivana Blešić, Milica Aleksić, Marko D. Petrović, Milan M. Radovanović, Darko B. Vuković, Višnja Sikimić, Tatjana Pivac, Marija Kostić, and et al. 2022. "Factors That Influence Sustainable Selection and Reselection Intentions Regarding Soluble/Instant Coffee—The Case of Serbian Consumers" Sustainability 14, no. 17: 10701.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop